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Mineral deposits are natural accumulations of one or more useful minerals that may provide society with metallic or non-metallic raw materials. The Geological Survey of Canada has been compiling databases for major metallic mineral deposits on Canada-wide and world-wide scale over a three decade period. The most recent compilation was enabled by industry-sponsored World Map and World Minerals Geoscience Database Projects. Four Canadian thematic databases for uranium-thorium, vanadium-titanium, lode gold, and molybdenum occurrences are now available On-Line.
Canadian V and Ti Occurrences (GSC:CAN_VTiDeposits)
Vanadium (V) and titanium (Ti), strategic metals of the future which are intimately associated in nature, are found throughout Canada in a wide variety of forms and settings. Natural hosts for V and Ti deposits are magnetite and/or ilmenite-rich igneous rocks such as anorthosite complexes and layered intrusions, sedimentary rocks including heavy mineral placers, coal and phosphate rock, hydrothermally altered and metamorphic rocks, and bauxite (aluminium-rich residually weathered) deposits. These metals are also found in previously processed oil residues and ashes, and in iron slag. They are also recovered from the recycling of used catalysts.
Canadian Uranium Deposits and Occurrences (GSC:CAN_UThDeposits)
The Canadian uranium database captures the geological characteristics of Canadian radioactive occurrences, which are natural concentrations of uranium (and/or thorium) that exceed 10 times background. Multiple radioactively anomalous zones that lie within 400 to 500 metres from each other may be captured in the database as one occurrence. Some uranium occurrences will become economic producers, but only after extensive exploration, economic evaluation and environmental assessment. This is the case for major developments in the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan. Former mines at Port Radium, Northwest Territories, and Elliot Lake and Bancroft areas of Ontario, once Canada’s most significant sources of uranium, were in production before Canadians realized the need for long term environmental assessment. Some of these sites are now decommissioned, and others are at various stages of post-mining remediation as directed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. Uranium deposits encompass a variety of settings and styles. The most significant deposits in Canada, such as those in the Athabasca (Saskatchewan) and Thelon (Nunavut) sedimentary basins are thought to be associated with Proterozoic unconformities. Other common types of occurrence are grouped into main classes such as: 'sandstone', 'veins', 'paleoplacer', 'intrusion-related', 'magmatic-hydrothermal iron oxide', 'volcanic', 'phosphatic', and 'surficial'. Parts of the database that have not been updated include older terms such as 'magmatic-anatectic' and 'metasomatite'. These are being updated as resources permit in the Uranium Resources of Canada Project. Repeat users will be able to observe changes in classification that are applied over time as updates continue.
MOLYFILE: an Index-level Computer File of Molybdenum Deposits and Occurrences in Canada (GSC:CAN_MoDeposits)
MOLYFILE is an inventory of molybdenum deposits and occurrences in Canada discovered before 1982, and documents their index level geological and economic attributes. The file contains information on: name(s), location, political province, geological province, geological age (if available), deposit type, major commodities, minor commodities, molybdenum status, reserves and production. This file is archived on tape. It has also been converted for public access over the Internet into the database format modified for Canadian deposits from the World Minerals Geoscience Database Project.
Gold Deposits of Canada: Distribution, Geological Parameters and Gold Content (GSC:CAN_AuDeposits)
The spatial distribution and most significant geological attributes of Canadian bedrock-hosted (lode) gold deposits of large size and importance are depicted in this data set. Most of these deposits originally contained at least 0.5 million troy ounces (31 metric tons) of gold metal. Lode gold deposits have originated in a wide variety of geological environments. Some are related to igneous emplacement and others are formed during periods of moderate to intense deformation. Placer and paleoplacer deposits are not included in this data set. The downloadable data summary is periodically extracted from a database prepared for the World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (1998-2003). The full database can be viewed and queried over the Internet, and is being provided on CD-ROM as a GSC Open File. The CD-ROM version of this data set requires the use of MS-Access, and the database management (data entry/browsing and query) utilities packaged as GlobalDBSystem and developed by Robert Laramée.