CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere

GeoServer Web Map Service

local:ARGO_HEADER imos:AUSCPR_PCI local:ARGO_HEADER
Service health Now:
Interface
Web Service, OGC Web Map Service 1.3.0
Keywords
WFS, WMS, GEOSERVER
Fees
NONE
Access constraints
NONE
Supported languages
No INSPIRE Extended Capabilities (including service language support) given. See INSPIRE Technical Guidance - View Services for more information.
Data provider

CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere (unverified)

Contact information:

Pamela Brodie

CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere

Castray Esplande, 7000 Hobart, Australia

Email: 

Phone: +61 3 6232 5556

Service metadata
No INSPIRE Extended Capabilities (including service metadata) given. See INSPIRE Technical Guidance - View Services for more information.

Ads by Google

A compliant implementation of WMS plus most of the SLD extension (dynamic styling). Can also generate PDF, SVG, KML, GeoRSS

Available map layers (1117)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features (gsfm:GSFM)

24 layers ordered as per QGIS project Harris et al. Geomorphology of the oceans, Marine Geology 352 (2014) 4–24

World: Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap (ea-be:World_Bright-Earth-e-Atlas-basemap)

World: Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap

World: Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap (No Labels) (ea-be:World_Bright-Earth-e-Atlas-basemap_No-Labels)

World: Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap (No Labels)

Population_Density_1991 (nerp:1991_enumeration_proj)

1996-2000-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09 (nerp:1996-2000-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09)

Population_Density_1996 (nerp:1996_enumeration_proj)

2001-2005-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09 (nerp:2001-2005-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09)

Population_Density_2001 (nerp:2001_enumeration_proj)

2006-2010-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09 (nerp:2006-2010-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09)

Population_Density_2006 (nerp:2006_enumeration_proj)

Population_Density_2011 (nerp:2011_enumeration_proj)

SST January Mean (ebsa:A20030012014031.L3m_MC_SST4_4_0_Jan)

ADCP ensembles (aodn:ADCP_ensembles)

Location of all ensembles from all voyages

Sea Surface Temperature - Long Term Trend - 1993-2014 (nerp:ALTTSE_31July2014)

Sea Surface Temperature - Long Term Trend SE - 1993-2014 (nerp:ALTT_31July2014)

AMSA-spills-Chemical-2009-2013 (nerp:AMSA-spills-Chemical-2009-2013)

AMSA-spills-Garbage-2009-2013 (nerp:AMSA-spills-Garbage-2009-2013)

AMSA-spills-Oil-2009-2013 (nerp:AMSA-spills-Oil-2009-2013)

AMSA-spills-OtherSubstances (nerp:AMSA-spills-OtherSubstances)

AMSA-spills_HarmfulSubstances-2009-2013 (nerp:AMSA-spills_HarmfulSubstances-2009-2013)

AUSCPR_BIOMASS_INDEX (imos:AUSCPR_BIOMASS_INDEX)

IMOS - AusCPR: Biomass Index (mg/m3) The Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder (AusCPR) survey is a joint project between CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere (O&A) and the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) to measure plankton communities as a guide to the health of Australia's oceans. The biomass is analysed from the same segment from which the zooplankton is analysed. All the plankton is washed onto a pre-weighed filter. This is left in an oven at 60 degrees C for 24-48 hours. It is reweighed to give the dry weight. It is advised that anyone using the data should contact the project contact person. The aims of the AusCPR survey are to: * map plankton biodiversity and distribution * develop the first long-term plankton baseline for Australian waters * document plankton changes in response to climate change * provide indices for fisheries management * detect harmful algal blooms * validate satellite remote sensing * initialise and test ecosystem models. Servicing and maintenance of the CPRs and analysis of the samples for the AusCPR survey will be carried out by staff based at the O&A CSIRO laboratories in Queensland and Hobart and at the AAD in Hobart. The project was funded by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and falls with the Ships of Opportunity facility. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS Infrastructure. Results from the AusCPR survey are available through the AODN portal: https://portal.aodn.org.au. This data is freely available but please acknowledge all relevant parties, as detailed in acknowledgement section.

IMOS - AUSCPR: Phytoplankton Colour Index (imos:AUSCPR_PCI)

The Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder (AusCPR) survey is a joint project of CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) and the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) to measure plankton communities as a guide to the health of Australia's oceans. The AusCPR survey is part of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), a national collaborative program to observe Australia's marine environments. IMOS is funded by the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. The aims of the AusCPR survey are to: * map plankton biodiversity and distribution * develop the first long-term plankton baseline for Australian waters * document plankton changes in response to climate change * provide indices for fisheries management * detect harmful algal blooms * validate satellite remote sensing * initialise and test ecosystem models Servicing and maintenance of the CPRs and analysis of the samples for the AusCPR survey will be carried out by staff based at the CMAR laboratories in Cleveland and at the AAD in Hobart. The project was funded by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and falls with the Ships of Opportunity facility. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Results from the AusCPR survey are available through the IMOS data portal. Further information is available from: http://www.marlin.csiro.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/search?uuid=e210cb45-910a-79c2-e043-08114f8c7800

IMOS - AUSCPR: Phytoplankton Abundance (imos:AUSCPR_PHYTO)

The Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder (AusCPR) survey is a joint project of CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) and the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) to measure plankton communities as a guide to the health of Australia's oceans. The AusCPR survey is part of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), a national collaborative program to observe Australia's marine environments. IMOS is funded by the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. The aims of the AusCPR survey are to: * map plankton biodiversity and distribution * develop the first long-term plankton baseline for Australian waters * document plankton changes in response to climate change * provide indices for fisheries management * detect harmful algal blooms * validate satellite remote sensing * initialise and test ecosystem models Servicing and maintenance of the CPRs and analysis of the samples for the AusCPR survey will be carried out by staff based at the CMAR laboratories in Cleveland and at the AAD in Hobart. The project was funded by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and falls with the Ships of Opportunity facility. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Results from the AusCPR survey are available through the IMOS data portal. Further information is available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/marq/edd_search.Browse_Citation?txtSession=7913

IMOS - AUSCPR: Zooplankton Abundance (imos:AUSCPR_ZOOP)

The Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder (AusCPR) survey is a joint project of CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) and the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) to measure plankton communities as a guide to the health of Australia's oceans. The AusCPR survey is part of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), a national collaborative program to observe Australia's marine environments. IMOS is funded by the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training. The aims of the AusCPR survey are to: * map plankton biodiversity and distribution * develop the first long-term plankton baseline for Australian waters * document plankton changes in response to climate change * provide indices for fisheries management * detect harmful algal blooms * validate satellite remote sensing * initialise and test ecosystem models Servicing and maintenance of the CPRs and analysis of the samples for the AusCPR survey will be carried out by staff based at the CMAR laboratories in Cleveland and at the AAD in Hobart. The project was funded by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) and falls with the Ships of Opportunity facility. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Results from the AusCPR survey are available through the IMOS data portal. Further information is available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/marq/edd_search.Browse_Citation?txtSession=7913

Abyss (gsfm:Abyss)

Abyssal_Classification (gsfm:Abyssal_Classification)

Basins (gsfm:Basins)

Bridges (gsfm:Bridges)

CAAB FISHMAP (caab:CAAB_FISHMAP)

CMAR Catch records (cmar:CATCH_HEADER_AODN_VIEW)

Catch composition records from data collected since 1983 using various ships or other platforms at various locations around Australia and in the Southern Ocean has been loaded into the CMAR Data Warehouse. Individual metadata records contain detailed information about each survey. Most of these data were collected by the historical CSIRO divisions of Fisheries, Oceanography, Marine Research and now Marine and Atmospheric Research.

CHLOR_A_av (ebsa:CHLOR_A_av)

CHLOR_A_av_SE (ebsa:CHLOR_A_av_SE)

CHLOR_A_interannualRMSE (ebsa:CHLOR_A_interannualRMSE)

CHLOR_A_linTrend (ebsa:CHLOR_A_linTrend)

CHLOR_A_linTrend_SE (ebsa:CHLOR_A_linTrend_SE)

CHLOR_A_seasonalRMSE (ebsa:CHLOR_A_seasonalRMSE)

MNF CTD Cast Data - all voyages (mnf:CTD_HEADER_AODN_VIEW)

This layer shows the locations of CTD profiles from 1984 to present on many vessels but more recently from the MNF RV Southern Surveyor. The majority of recent profiles are in conjunction with Hydrology data. Most profiles are linked to downloads. For those that are not, please use the data-requests address at http://www.cmar.csiro.au/cgi-bin/nospam?a=data-requests-hf&d=csiro+au.

CTD_SR3 (cmar:CTD_SR3)

CTD - WOCE transects (1991 to 2011) (cmar:CTD_WOCE)

CTD casts from the WOCE SR3 and I9 transects 1991 to 2011 conducted on the RSV Aurora Australis by CMAR and ACE-CRC.

CTD_casts (aodn:CTD_casts)

CTD casts from all voyages

Canyons (gsfm:Canyons)

Catch_records (aodn:Catch_records)

Cold Water Coral Predictions (Enallopsammia rostrata) (ebsa:ColdWaterCoralPredictions_ena)

Cold Water Coral Predictions (Solenosmillia variabilis) (ebsa:ColdWaterCoralPredictions_sol)

Commonwealth Marine Reserves (local:CommonwealthMarineReserves)

Commonwealth Marine Reserves as at June 2012, including yet to be approved. Consistent with the Australian Government's commitment to develop a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by 2012, the department has developed a final marine reserves network proposal for Commonwealth waters in the South-west, North-west, North, Coral Sea and Temperate East Marine Regions. The proposed networks have been designed using the 'Goals and principles for the establishment of the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas in Commonwealth waters'. Stakeholder feedback on the proposed networks will be sought through a 60 day statutory consultation period as part of the requirements for proclamation under Australia’s national environmental law. The data also contains spatial and contextual information about existing Commonwealth Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Government's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, which are managed by the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC). http://www.environment.gov.au/marinereserves/index.html

Escarpments (gsfm:Escarpments)

Fans (gsfm:Fans)

Gillnet 2011 - 2014 (nerp:Fish-csq_gn_20112014)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Troughs (ebsa:GFM_Troughs)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Abyss (ebsa:GSFM_Abyss)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Abyssal_Classification (ebsa:GSFM_Abyssal_Classification)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Basins (ebsa:GSFM_Basins)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Bridges (ebsa:GSFM_Bridges)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Canyons (ebsa:GSFM_Canyons)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Escarpments (ebsa:GSFM_Escarpments)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Fans (ebsa:GSFM_Fans)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Glacial_troughs (ebsa:GSFM_Glacial_troughs)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Guyots (ebsa:GSFM_Guyots)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Hadal (ebsa:GSFM_Hadal)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Plateaus (ebsa:GSFM_Plateaus)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Ridges (ebsa:GSFM_Ridges)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Rift_valleys (ebsa:GSFM_Rift_valleys)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Rises (ebsa:GSFM_Rises)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Seamounts (ebsa:GSFM_Seamounts)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Shelf (ebsa:GSFM_Shelf)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Shelf_Classification (ebsa:GSFM_Shelf_Classification)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Shelf_valleys (ebsa:GSFM_Shelf_valleys)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Sills (ebsa:GSFM_Sills)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Slope (ebsa:GSFM_Slope)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Spreading_ridges (ebsa:GSFM_Spreading_ridges)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Terraces (ebsa:GSFM_Terraces)

Global Seafloor Geomorphic Features Map - Trenches (ebsa:GSFM_Trenches)

Glacial_troughs (gsfm:Glacial_troughs)

Guyots (gsfm:Guyots)

MNF Hydrology Profiles - all voyages (mnf:HYDROLOGY_HEADER_AODN_VIEW)

This layer shows the locations of Hydrology profiles from 1984 to present on many vessels but more recently from the MNF RV Southern Surveyor. The majority of recent profiles are in conjunction with a CTD cast. Most profiles are linked to downloads. For those that are not, please use the data-requests address at http://www.cmar.csiro.au/cgi-bin/nospam?a=data-requests-hf&d=csiro+au.

Hydrology - WOCE transects (1991 to 2011) (cmar:HYDROLOGY_WOCE)

Hydrology data from the WOCE SR3 and I9 transects 1991 to 2011 conducted on the RSV Aurora Australis by CMAR and ACE-CRC.

Hadal (gsfm:Hadal)

Hydrology_casts (aodn:Hydrology_casts)

IMOS_ABD_DATA (imos:IMOS_ABD_DATA)

Zooplankton biomass data have been collected in Australian waters since the 1930s, yet most datasets have been unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, contacted researchers, and scanned the primary and grey literature to collate this dataset of marine zooplankton biomass from Australian waters, within the geographical extents of 0-60S, 100-160E. Many of these are small-scale datasets , when combined, they provide over 85 years of large-scale zooplankton community biomass data for Australian waters from 1932 to the present. The data have been standardised, erroneous data removed, and all metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network (http://imos.aodn.org.au/), allowing full public access. The Australian Zooplankton Biomass Database will be invaluable for global change studies, research assessing trophic level linkages, and for initialising and assessing biogeochemical and ecosystem models of lower marine trophic levels. Source: http://www.marlin.csiro.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/search?uuid=c3c9663f-50ba-41c9-b1ac-b5a9b7e9d4f7

IMOS_ACD_DATA (imos:IMOS_ACD_DATA)

Chlorophyll a is the most commonly used indicator of phytoplankton biomass and is a proxy for primary productivity in the marine environment. It is relatively simple and cost effective to measure when compared to phytoplankton abundance and is thus routinely included in many surveys. Here we collate 173,333 records of chlorophyll a collected since 1965 from Australian waters gathered from researchers, from regular coastal monitoring surveys to long ocean voyages. This dataset concentrates on samples analysed using spectrophotometry, fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Australian Chlorophyll a database is freely available through the Australian Ocean Data Network portal (http://imos.aodn.org.au/). These data can be used in isolation as an index of phytoplankton biomass or in combination with other data to provide insight into water quality, ecosystem state, and / or the relationships with other trophic levels such as zooplankton or fish.

The Australian Zooplankton Database (1938 onwards) - Data (imos:IMOS_AZD_DATA)

Zooplankton are the key trophic link between primary producers and fish in pelagic ecosystems. Historically, there are few zooplankton time series in Australia, with no datasets longer than two years prior to 2008. Here we compile 98,676 abundance records of more than 1,000 zooplankton taxa from unpublished research cruises, student projects, published literature and the recent Integrated Marine Observing System. This dataset covers the entire coastal and shelf region of Australia and dates back to 1938. Most records are for copepods, but there are also data for other taxa such as decapods, chaetognaths, thaliaceans, appendicularians and cladocerans. Metadata are provided for each record, including dates, coordinates and information on mesh size and sampling methods. To facilitate analysis across the multiple datasets, we have updated the species names according to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS; http://www.marinespecies.org/about.php) and converted units to abundance per m3. These data will be valuable for studies of biodiversity, biogeography, impacts of climate change and ecosystem health. We encourage researchers holding additional Australian zooplankton data to contact us and contribute their data to the dataset so we can periodically publish updates.

KeyEcologicalFeatures (local:KeyEcologicalFeatures)

The Bioregional Profile identifies a number of ecological features that are of conservation value because of the role they play in the environment of the South-west Marine Region. Key ecological features meet one or more of the following criteria: 1. a species, group of species, or a community with a regionally important ecological role (e.g. a predator, prey that affects a large biomass or number of other marine species); 2. a species, group of species, or a community that is nationally or regionally important for biodiversity; 3. an area or habitat that is nationally or regionally important for: a) enhanced or high productivity (such as predictable upwellings - an upwelling occurs when cold nutrient-rich waters from the bottom of the ocean rise to the surface); b) aggregations of marine life (such as feeding, resting, breeding or nursery areas); c) biodiversity and endemism (species which only occur in a specific area); or 4. a unique seafloor feature, with known or presumed ecological properties of regional significance. Key ecological features have been identified by the Australian Government on the basis of advice from scientists about the ecological processes and characteristics of the area. A workshop held in Perth in September 2006 also contributed to this scientific advice and helped to underpin the identification of key ecological features. Sixteen KEFs have been identified in the South-west Marine Region: 1. Commonwealth marine environment surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands 2. Perth Canyon and adjacent shelf break, and other west coast canyons 3. Commonwealth marine environment within and adjacent to the west coast inshore lagoons 4. Commonwealth marine environment within and adjacent to Geographe Bay 5. Cape Mentelle upwelling 6. Naturaliste Plateau 7. Diamantina Fracture Zone 8. Albany Canyons group and adjacent shelf break 9. Commonwealth marine environment surrounding the Recherche Archipelago 10. Ancient coastline at 90-120 m depth 11. Kangaroo Island Pool, canyons and adjacent shelf break, and Eyre Peninsula upwellings. 12. Meso-scale eddies (points). 13. Western demersal slope and associated fish communities. 14. Western rock lobster. 15. Benthic invertebrate communities of the eastern Great Australian Bight. No spatial representation available. 16. Small pelagic fish of the South-west Marine Region. No spatial representation available. In order to create a spatial representation of KEFs for the South-west Marine Region, some interpretation of the information was required. DSEWPaC has made every effort to use the best available spatial information, and best judgement on how to spatially represent the features based on the scientific advice provided. This does not preclude others from making their own interpretation of available information. See http://www.environment.gov.au/metadataexplorer/full_metadata.jsp?docId={8908E38E-322C-48B4-AB5A-7B041AF0320B}&loggedIn=false

Marine Gazetteer of Australia (local:MGA)

CMAR Moored Instruments (cmar:MOORED_INSTRUMENT_AODN_VIEW)

Data collected since 1983 using moored current meters deployed at various locations around Australia and in the Southern Ocean has been loaded into the CMAR Data Warehouse. Individual metadata records contain detailed information about each experiment. Most of these data were collected by the historical CSIRO divisions of Fisheries, Oceanography, Marine Research and now Marine and Atmospheric Research.

Mooring_data (aodn:Mooring_data)

GeoScience Australia Multibeam catalogue (local:Multibeam_GA_catalogue)

GeoScience Australia Multibeam catalogue from Feb 2014 containing all surveys from within the Australian jurisdiction

NB_admin (png_values:NB_admin)

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Chemistry (imos:NRS_CHEMISTRY)

These data sets include Salinity, Carbon, Alkalinity, Oxygent and Nutrients (Silicate, Ammonium, Nitrite/Nitrate, Phosphate) analysed from samples collected as part of the Integrated Marine Observing Systems (IMOS) Australia National Mooring Network (ANMN) -National Reference Station (NRS) field sampling. Nine Sites are included in the IMOS NRS field sampling stations. Maria Island (TAS), Kangaroo Island (SA), Esperance (WA), Rottnest Island (WA), Ningaloo (WA), Darwin (NT), Yongala (QLD), North Stradbroke Island (QLD) and Port Hacking 100 (NSW). Sampling at these sites is conducted by several members of IMOS NRS Biogeochemical project. Sampling at the sites began between 29/9/2008 and 8/11/2010 and is currently ongoing for 7 sites. Sampling ceased at Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) sites in Aug/Sept 2013. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo were 3 monthly) off small vessels. Depths sampled range from surface to 105 metres depending on the site. Depths are usually sampled at 10 metre intervals. Details including information on station locations, depths sampled and sample types collected are shown in the PDF link below extracted from the IMOS NRS NATIONAL REFERENCE STATIONS BIOGEOCHEMICAL OPERATIONS - A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK, Version 2.2 July 2012. A link to the full handbook is also provided which includes full details of the sampling regime and analyses. Historical data collected as part of CSIRO Coastal Monitoring program is available for three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008, Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 and Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009. The links to the metadata and access for these data is provided below. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is freely available through the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/webportal

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Phytoplankton HPLC Pigment Composition Analysis (imos:NRS_PHYPIG)

This dataset comprises the results of phytoplankton pigment composition analysed from samples collected as part of the Integrated Marine Observing Systems (IMOS) Australia National Mooring Network (ANMN) -National Reference Station (NRS) field sampling. Pigment samples are taken for the complete water column (0-50m) and at the depths of the shallow WQM and the deeper WQM attached to the mooring at that site. Nine Sites are included in the IMOS NRS field sampling stations. Maria Island (TAS), Kangaroo Island (SA), Esperance (WA), Rottnest Island (WA), Ningaloo (WA), Darwin (NT), Yongala (QLD), North Stradbroke Island (QLD) and Port Hacking 100 (NSW). Sampling at these sites is conducted by several members of IMOS NRS Biogeochemical project. Sampling at the sites began between 29/9/2008 and 8/11/2010 and is currently ongoing for 7 sites. Sampling ceased at Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) sites in Aug/Sept 2013. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo were 3 monthly) off small vessels. Depths sampled range from surface to 105 metres depending on the site. Depths are usually sampled at 10 metre intervals. Details including information on station locations, depths sampled and sample types collected are shown in the PDF link below extracted from the IMOS NRS NATIONAL REFERENCE STATIONS BIOGEOCHEMICAL OPERATIONS - A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK, Version 2.2 July 2012. A link to the full handbook is also provided which includes full details of the sampling regime and analyses. Historical data collected as part of CSIRO Coastal Monitoring program is available for three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008, Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 and Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is freely available through the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/webportal

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Picoplankton flow cytometry (imos:NRS_PICOPLANKTON)

These data sets include the picoplankton component analysed by flow cytometry from samples collected as part of the Integrated Marine Observing Systems (IMOS) Australia National Mooring Network (ANMN) -National Reference Station (NRS) field sampling. Nine Sites are included in the IMOS NRS field sampling stations. Maria Island (TAS), Kangaroo Island (SA), Esperance (WA), Rottnest Island (WA), Ningaloo (WA), Darwin (NT), Yongala (QLD), North Stradbroke Island (QLD) and Port Hacking 100 (NSW). Sampling at these sites is conducted by several members of IMOS NRS Biogeochemical project. Sampling at the sites began between 29/9/2008 and 8/11/2010 and is currently ongoing for 7 sites. Sampling ceased at Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) sites in Aug/Sept 2013. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo were 3 monthly) off small vessels. Depths sampled range from surface to 105 metres depending on the site. Depths are usually sampled at 10 metre intervals. Details including information on station locations, depths sampled and sample types collected are shown in the PDF link below extracted from the IMOS NRS NATIONAL REFERENCE STATIONS BIOGEOCHEMICAL OPERATIONS - A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK, Version 2.2 July 2012. A link to the full handbook is also provided which includes full details of the sampling regime and analyses. Historical data collected as part of CSIRO Coastal Monitoring program is available for three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008, Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 and Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is freely available through the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/webportal

NRS_STATION (imos:NRS_STATION)

This dataset describes the sampling stations, which comprise part of a broader sampling program carried out by the Plankton National Reference Station within the Integrated Marine Observing system. Nine Sites are included in the IMOS NRS field sampling stations. Maria Island (TAS), Kangaroo Island (SA), Esperance (WA), Rottnest Island (WA), Ningaloo (WA), Darwin (NT), Yongala (QLD), North Stradbroke Island (QLD) and Port Hacking 100 (NSW). Sampling at these sites is conducted by several members of IMOS NRS Biogeochemical project. Sampling at the sites began between 29/9/2008 and 8/11/2010 and is currently ongoing for 7 sites. Sampling ceased at Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) sites in Aug/Sept 2013. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo were 3 monthly) off small vessels. Depths sampled range from surface to 105 metres depending on the site. Depths are usually sampled at 10 metre intervals. Details including information on station locations, depths sampled and sample types collected are shown in the PDF link below extracted from the IMOS NRS NATIONAL REFERENCE STATIONS BIOGEOCHEMICAL OPERATIONS - A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK, Version 2.2 July 2012. A link to the full handbook is also provided which includes full details of the sampling regime and analyses. Historical data collected as part of CSIRO Coastal Monitoring program is available for three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008, Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 and Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009. The links to the metadata and access for these data is provided below.. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is freely available through the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/webportal The main goals of the project are to: 1. Provide a record of physical, chemical and biological (plankton) changes in Australian coastal waters. 2. Record data as part of a larger comprehensive national dataset, comprising both continuous in-situ sampling and analysis of discrete physical, chemical and biological samples collected monthly. People using these data should also consider historical data available from three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008 .. MarLIN Record Number: 4849 Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 .. MarLIN Record Number: 5301 Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009 .. MarLIN Record Number: 4877

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Secchi Depth (imos:NRS_TSS_SECCHI)

This dataset comprises the measurement of Secchi Depth and Total suspended solids (inorganic and organic components) analysed from samples collected as part of the Integrated Marine Observing Systems (IMOS) Australia National Mooring Network (ANMN) -National Reference Station (NRS) field sampling. Nine Sites are included in the IMOS NRS field sampling stations. Maria Island (TAS), Kangaroo Island (SA), Esperance (WA), Rottnest Island (WA), Ningaloo (WA), Darwin (NT), Yongala (QLD), North Stradbroke Island (QLD) and Port Hacking 100 (NSW). Sampling at these sites is conducted by several members of IMOS NRS Biogeochemical project. Sampling at the sites began between 29/9/2008 and 8/11/2010 and is currently ongoing for 7 sites. Sampling ceased at Ningaloo and Esperance (WA) sites in Aug/Sept 2013. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo were 3 monthly) off small vessels. Depths sampled range from surface to 105 metres depending on the site. Depths are usually sampled at 10 metre intervals. Details including information on station locations, depths sampled and sample types collected are shown in the PDF link below extracted from the IMOS NRS NATIONAL REFERENCE STATIONS BIOGEOCHEMICAL OPERATIONS - A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK, Version 2.2 July 2012. A link to the full handbook is also provided which includes full details of the sampling regime and analyses. Historical data collected as part of CSIRO Coastal Monitoring program is available for three of the National Reference Station sites: Maria Island Coastal Station Data 1944-2008, Port Hacking 100m Coastal Station Data 1953-2010 and Rottnest Island Coastal Station Data 1951-2009. Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is freely available through the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/webportal

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Zooplankton Biomass (imos:PLANKTON_NRS_BIOMASS)

Regular monthly zooplankton samples are undertaken at the stations as part of a larger water sampling program by the Australian National Reference Stations. In total nine stations are sampled regularly around the Australian coastline. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo 3 monthly) off small vessels at each of the nine reference stations. The sampling is conducted using a drop net (as per the design of Heron) which has a 60 cm diameter, 100 micron mesh and is weighted to fall at 1 m/s. The net is designed to pull closed at the end of its fall so that it samples on the way down and does not sample on the way up. The depth of the sample varies at each station. 3 zooplankton samples are taken each month. 2 are fixed in formalin and will be analysed as described below. The unfixed sample is concentrated and frozen (-80oC)and will be used for molecular analysis in the future. The Port Hacking 4 (PH4) samples (2002 - Jan 2009) were sampled using a smaller net, 20 cm diameter, which sampled on the way up and down. The PH4 site is very close to the Port Hacking national reference station (PHB) where samples are now taken to build up and enhance the time series. The plankton ecology lab (based in Queensland) will analyse the samples collected for: 1. Community composition (Taxon/m3) 2. Biomass (dry weight in mg/m3) 3. Size spectrum analysis using zooscan (in progress) Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Further information is available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/marq/edd_search.Browse_Citation?txtSession=8545

IMOS National Reference Station (NRS) - Phytoplankton Abundance and Biovolume (imos:PLANKTON_NRS_PHYTOPLANKTON)

This dataset comprises the phytoplankton abundance and biovolume estimates of a broader sampling program carried out by the Plankton National Reference Station within the Integrated Marine Observing system. Regular monthly phytoplankton samples are undertaken at the stations as part of a larger water sampling program by the Australian National Reference Stations. In total nine stations are sampled regularly around the Australian coastline. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo 3 monthly) off small vessels at each of the nine reference stations. The sampling is an integrated water sample collected with niskin bottles at 10m depth intervals and preserved in lugols solution. The depth of the sample varies at each station. The plankton ecology lab (based in Queensland) will analyse the samples collected for: 1. Community composition / abundance (cells/l) 2. Biovolume (ml/l). Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Data is available freely via the IMOS data portal: http://imos.aodn.org.au/ As the taxonomic resolution of the data has changed over time, due to continual training, it is important that users refer to the change log tables included in your data download. These will provide information on the validity of the taxa, from what date we have been identifing certain taxa etc. Classification fields may be blank depending on the level to which that taxa has been identified, i.e. if only identified to family, genus and species will be blank.

IMOS - Plankton NRS: Zooplankton Abundance (imos:PLANKTON_NRS_ZOOPLANKTON)

Regular monthly zooplankton samples are undertaken at the stations as part of a larger water sampling program by the Australian National Reference Stations. In total nine stations are sampled regularly around the Australian coastline. Sampling is conducted monthly (Esperance and Ningaloo 3 monthly) off small vessels at each of the nine reference stations. The sampling is conducted using a drop net (as per the design of Heron) which has a 60 cm diameter, 100 micron mesh and is weighted to fall at 1 m/s. The net is designed to pull closed at the end of its fall so that it samples on the way down and does not sample on the way up. The depth of the sample varies at each station. 3 zooplankton samples are taken each month. 2 are fixed in formalin and will be analysed as described below. The unfixed sample is concentrated and frozen (-80oC)and will be used for molecular analysis in the future. The Port Hacking 4 (PH4) samples (2002 - Jan 2009) were sampled using a smaller net, 20 cm diameter, which sampled on the way up and down. The PH4 site is very close to the Port Hacking national reference station (PHB) where samples are now taken to build up and enhance the time series. The plankton ecology lab (based in Queensland) will analyse the samples collected for: 1. Community composition (Taxon/m3) 2. Biomass (dry weight in mg/m3) 3. Size spectrum analysis using zooscan (in progress) Data storage and access is planned to be interoperable with other national and international programs through the IMOS eMarine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Station metadata can be found through this resource. Further information is available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/marq/edd_search.Browse_Citation?txtSession=8545

Plateaus (gsfm:Plateaus)

Pre-1996-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09 (nerp:Pre-1996-Data_All_SeismicSurveys__2D_2013_09)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) October Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month10_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) November Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month11_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) December Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month12_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) January Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month1_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) February Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month2_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) March Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month3_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) April Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month4_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) May Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month5_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) June Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month6_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) July Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month7_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) August Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month8_Depth0180)

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) September Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Month9_Depth0180)

CARS Sea Surface Temperature °C (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_190_Season1)

Average Sea Surface Temperature Summer (Dec, Jan, Feb) CARS Climatology

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) (Summer Mean) (ebsa:Product_190_Season1180)

Sea Surface Temperature (°C) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Temperature °C (M,A,M) (ebsa:Product_190_Season2)

Sea Surface Temperature for Autumn (Mar, Apr,May) CARS Climatologies

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) (Autumn Mean) (ebsa:Product_190_Season2180)

Mean Sea Surface Temperature (°C) for Autumn (Mar,Apr,May m) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Temperature °C (J,J,A) (ebsa:Product_190_Season3)

Sea Surface Temperature for Autumn (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Temperature (°C) Winter Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Season3180)

Sea Surface Temperature (°C) for Autumn (Jun, Jul, Aug) CARS Climatology

CARS Sea Surface Temperature °C (S,O,N) (ebsa:Product_190_Season4)

Sea Surface Temperature for Autumn (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS:Sea Surface Temperature (°C) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_190_Season4180)

Sea Surface Temperature (°C) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen ml/l (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_430_Season1)

Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology. 0 to 360

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) Summer Mean (ebsa:Product_430_Season1180)

Sea Surface Dissolved Oxygen (ml/l) for Spring (December, January, February) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen ml/l (M,A,M) (ebsa:Product_430_Season2)

Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) for Autumn (Mar, Apr,May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) Autumn Mean (ebsa:Product_430_Season2180)

Sea Surface Dissolved Oxygen (ml/l) for Autumn (March, April, May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen ml/l (J,J,A) (ebsa:Product_430_Season3)

Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology. 0 to 360

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) Winter Mean (ebsa:Product_430_Season3180)

Sea Surface Dissolved Oxygen (ml/l) for Winter (June, July, August) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen ml/l (S,O,N) (ebsa:Product_430_Season4)

Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) for Winter (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology. 0 to 360

CARS Sea Surface Oxygen (ml/l) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_430_Season4180)

Sea Surface Dissolved Oxygen (ml/l) for Spring (September, October, November) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate °C (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_435_Season1)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) Summer Mean (ebsa:Product_435_Season1180)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate °C (M,A,M)) (ebsa:Product_435_Season2)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) for Autumn (Mar, Apr,May) CARS Climatology

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) Autumn Mean (ebsa:Product_435_Season2180)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) for Autumn (Mar,Apr,May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) (J,J,A) (ebsa:Product_435_Season3)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) Winter Mean (ebsa:Product_435_Season3180)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) (S,O,N) (ebsa:Product_435_Season4)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µM) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology

CARS Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_435_Season4180)

Sea Surface Nitrate (µmol/l) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µM) (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_440_Season1)

Sea Surface Silicate (µM) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) Summer Mean (ebsa:Product_440_Season1180)

Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µM) (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_440_Season2)

Sea Surface Silicate (µM) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) Autumn Mean (ebsa:Product_440_Season2180)

Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) for Autumn (Mar,Apr,May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µM) (J,J,A) (ebsa:Product_440_Season3)

Sea Surface Silicate (µM) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

Product_440_Season3180 (ebsa:Product_440_Season3180)

Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Silicate (µM) (S,O,N) (ebsa:Product_440_Season4)

Sea Surface Silicate (µM) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Surface Silicate (µmol/l) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_440_Season4180)

Sea Surface Silicate (µmol/l) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) Summer Mean (ebsa:Product_450_Season1180)

Se Surface Salinity (PSU) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) Autumn Mean (ebsa:Product_450_Season2180)

Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) for Autumn (Mar,Apr,May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) Winter Mean (ebsa:Product_450_Season3180)

Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

CARS Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_450_Season4180)

Sea Surface Salinity (PSU) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) (D,J,F) (ebsa:Product_524_Season1)

Sea Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) Summer Mean (ebsa:Product_524_Season1180)

Mean Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Summer (Dec,Jan,Feb) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) (M,A,M) (ebsa:Product_524_Season2)

Sea Mixed Layer Depth (m)for Autumn (Mar,Apr,May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) Autumn Mean (ebsa:Product_524_Season2180)

Mean Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Autumn (Mar, Apr, May) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) (J,J,A) (ebsa:Product_524_Season3)

Sea Mixed Layer Depth (m)for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) Winter Mean (ebsa:Product_524_Season3180)

Mean Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Winter (Jun,Jul,Aug) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) (S,O,N) (ebsa:Product_524_Season4)

Sea Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

CARS Mixed Layer Depth (m) Spring Mean (ebsa:Product_524_Season4180)

Mean Mixed Layer Depth (m) for Spring (Sep,Oct,Nov) CARS Climatology.

REGIONS_DATA_SUMMARY (local:REGIONS_DATA_SUMMARY)

REGIONS_EXT_DATA_LAYERS (local:REGIONS_EXT_DATA_LAYERS)

point data from external wfs providers

RVSS_CATCH (local:RVSS_CATCH)

RVSS_CTD (local:RVSS_CTD)

RVSS_SED (local:RVSS_SED)

RVSS_TRACKS (local:RVSS_TRACKS)

RVSS_XBT (local:RVSS_XBT)

Regions - includes KEF, CMR etc. (local:Regions)

Marine Regions around Australia (KEF, CMR, GBR et al)

Ridges (gsfm:Ridges)

Rift_valleys (gsfm:Rift_valleys)

Rises (gsfm:Rises)

SEDIMENT_HEADER (local:SEDIMENT_HEADER)

MNF and CMAR Ship Tracks - all voyages (mnf:SHIPTRACK_GEOMETRY)

Single layer of all voyages (RV Franklin and RV Southern Surveyor) from 1986 to present. Includes all MNF voyage and some non-MNF voyages. Note some voyages appear to track across land and that is due to data gaps for that particular voyage. This will be fixed in due course. For individual voyages sorted by year see folder MNF Underway Voyage Data.

SST-Chla-Cat_linTrend (ebsa:SST-Chla-Cat_linTrend)

SST_av (ebsa:SST_av)

SST_av_SE (ebsa:SST_av_SE)

SST_interannualRMSE (ebsa:SST_interannualRMSE)

SST_linTrend (ebsa:SST_linTrend)

SST_linTrend_SE (ebsa:SST_linTrend_SE)

Sea Surface Temperature from ISAR (mnf:SST_measurements)

Sea Surface Temperature measurements from ISAR

SST_measurements (aodn:SST_measurements)

SST_mismatchRMSE (ebsa:SST_mismatchRMSE)

SST_seasonalRMSE (ebsa:SST_seasonalRMSE)

Seamounts (gsfm:Seamounts)

MNF Sediment Sampling sites - all voyages (mnf:SedimentSampling)

CMAR Sediment Sampling sites - all voyages (cmar:SedimentSampling)

Sediment_sampling (aodn:Sediment_sampling)

Shelf (gsfm:Shelf)

Shelf_Classification (gsfm:Shelf_Classification)

Shelf_valleys (gsfm:Shelf_valleys)

Sills (gsfm:Sills)

Slope (gsfm:Slope)

Spreading_ridges (gsfm:Spreading_ridges)

Terraces (gsfm:Terraces)

Towed_CTD (aodn:Towed_CTD)

Trenches (gsfm:Trenches)

Troughs (gsfm:Troughs)

MNF Video Tows - all voyages (mnf:VideoTows)

Video Tows from MNF voyages

CMAR Video Tows - all voyages (cmar:VideoTows)

CMAR voyages video tows.

Waypoints (local:WAYPOINT_SETS)

Wildlife_observations (aodn:Wildlife_observations)

XBT_casts_Franklin (aodn:XBT_casts_Franklin)

XBT casts from Franklin

XBT_casts_SouthernSurveyor (aodn:XBT_casts_SouthernSurveyor)

MNF ADCP data - all voyages (mnf:adcp_public_data)

Single map view of all ADCP data (1985 to present) from RV Franklin and RV Southern Surveyor

agriculture_llg_valuetype (png_values:agriculture_llg_valuetype)

AIS Shipping 2013 (nerp:ais_shipping_2013)

AIS Shipping 2014 (nerp:ais_shipping_2014)

AIS Shipping 2015 (nerp:ais_shipping_2015)

Sea Surface Temperature - Annual RMSE - 1993-2014 (nerp:annualRMSE_31July2014)

AUSREP Shipping 1999 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_1999)

AUSREP Shipping 2000 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2000)

AUSREP Shipping 2001 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2001)

AUSREP Shipping 2002 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2002)

AUSREP Shipping 2003 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2003)

AUSREP Shipping 2004 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2004)

AUSREP Shipping 2005 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2005)

AUSREP Shipping 2006 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2006)

AUSREP Shipping 2007 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2007)

AUSREP Shipping 2008 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2008)

AUSREP Shipping 2009 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2009)

AUSREP Shipping 2010 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2010)

AUSREP Shipping 2011 (nerp:ausrep_shipping_2011)

Oil and Gas Production - cables - active (nerp:cables_active_hydro_proj)

Oil and Gas Production - cables - decommissioned (nerp:cables_deco_hydro_proj)

CCZ Reserved Boundaries (ebsa:ccz_reserved_18sep2012)

chess__vents_seeps_whalefalls (ebsa:chess__vents_seeps_whalefalls)

closuresMI_20130709_region (afma:closuresMI_20130709_region)

Spatial and temporal closures in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. Includes fishery management and voluntary closures.

community_gardens_llg_valuetype (png_values:community_gardens_llg_valuetype)

community_livestock_llg_valuetype (png_values:community_livestock_llg_valuetype)

coral_llg_valuetype (png_values:coral_llg_valuetype)

Auto Long Line 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_al_20112014)

Demersal Long Line 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_bl_20112014)

Danish Seine 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_ds_20112014)

Hand Line 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_hl_20112014)

Pelagic Long Line 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_llp_20112014)

Pole 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_pl_20112014)

Purse Seine 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_ps_20112014)

Trotline 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_tl_20112014)

Trolling 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_tr_20112014)

Trawling 2011 - 2014 (nerp:csq_tw_20112014)

Cyclones sum tracks 1900 to 2015 (ebsa:cyclones_sum_1900to2015)

CCZ Contractor boundaries (ebsa:czz_contractors01sep2012)

draft_cti_env_values (ebsa:draft_cti_env_values)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_coral (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_coral)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_mangrove_carbonsequestration (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_mangrove_carbonsequestration)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_mangrove_hazardreduction (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_mangrove_hazardreduction)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_poly (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_poly)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_pt (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_pt)

ecosystem_regulatory_service_rivers (png_values:ecosystem_regulatory_service_rivers)

ecosystem_structure_process_poly (png_values:ecosystem_structure_process_poly)

ecosystem_structure_process_pt (png_values:ecosystem_structure_process_pt)

ecosystem_values_birds (png_values:ecosystem_values_birds)

ecosystem_values_turtles (png_values:ecosystem_values_turtles)

ecosystem_values_whales (png_values:ecosystem_values_whales)

Sea Surface Temperature - e-fold time - 1993-2014 (nerp:efold_31July2014)

Cold Water Coral Predictions (Enallopsammia rostrata) (ebsa:ena180)

Cold water coral prediction for Enallopsammia rostrata

estuary_llg_valuetype (png_values:estuary_llg_valuetype)

fao_areas (ebsa:fao_areas)

feature_llg_valuetype (png_values:feature_llg_valuetype)

forest_llg_valuetype (png_values:forest_llg_valuetype)

gadm28_adm0 (ebsa:gadm28_adm0)

gadm28_adm1 (ebsa:gadm28_adm1)

gadm28_adm2 (ebsa:gadm28_adm2)

gadm28_adm3 (ebsa:gadm28_adm3)

gadm28_adm4 (ebsa:gadm28_adm4)

gadm28_adm5 (ebsa:gadm28_adm5)

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (local:gbrmp)

The 4 major regions of the park - see http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/zoning-permits-and-plans/zoning/overview-maps

Bathymetry Contours Gebco 0 to 360° (ebsa:gebco360)

gebco_gazeteer_2008 (ebsa:gebco_gazeteer_2008)

Global EBSA approved (ebsa:global_ebsas_critieria)

GOBI Physical Region Cluster 0m (ebsa:gobi_physical_regions_0m_16clusters)

GOBI Physical Cluster Regions 1000m (ebsa:gobi_physical_regions_1000m_17clusters)

GOBI Physical Cluster Regions 200m (ebsa:gobi_physical_regions_200m_17clusters)

GOBI Physical Cluster Regions seafloor (ebsa:gobi_physical_regions_seafloor_16clusters)

Marine Gravity Measurements (RV Investigator) (mnf:gravity)

The Micro-G LaCoste Air-Sea System II marine gravity meter consists of a highly damped, spring-type gravity sensor that is mounted on a gyro stabilized platform with associated electronics for obtaining gravity readings.

ne_10m_graticules_15 (local:grid_fifteen)

ne_10m_graticules_5 (local:grid_five)

grid_one (local:grid_one)

grid_ten (local:grid_ten)

Grid at every ten degress

ne_10m_graticules_30 (local:grid_thirty)

ne_10m_graticules_20 (local:grid_twenty)

lme66 (ebsa:lme66)

longhurst_v4 (ebsa:longhurst_v4)

marine-debris-count_density_size1_360 (ebsa:marine-debris-count_density_size1_360)

marine-debris-count_density_size2_360 (ebsa:marine-debris-count_density_size2_360)

marine-debris-count_density_size3_360 (ebsa:marine-debris-count_density_size3_360)

marine-debris-count_density_size4_360 (ebsa:marine-debris-count_density_size4_360)

marine_coastal_llg_valuetype (png_values:marine_coastal_llg_valuetype)

marine_inshore_llg_valuetype (png_values:marine_inshore_llg_valuetype)

marine_offshore_llg_valuetype (png_values:marine_offshore_llg_valuetype)

marine_shelf_llg_valuetype (png_values:marine_shelf_llg_valuetype)

Marine species occurrence records (dwc:marine_species)

Marine species records published to OBIS. Records sourced from CSIRO, IMOS and ALA.

maritime_boundaries_v8 (ebsa:maritime_boundaries_v8)

merge_geomorph_base (ebsa:merge_geomorph_base)

merge_geomorph_classification (ebsa:merge_geomorph_classification)

merge_geomorph_features (ebsa:merge_geomorph_features)

mining_llg_valuetype (png_values:mining_llg_valuetype)

Multibeam data 0_200m (local:multibeam_0_200m)

all instruments EM300, EM122, EM710 and EM2040c for any extents overlapping with the 0-200m shelf area.

MNF multibeam data from EM122 - all voyages (mnf:multibeam_em122)

RV Investigator EM122 multibeam coverage

Multibeam lines from EM2040c (cmar:multibeam_em2040c)

Multibeam lines from EM2040c, Geophysical Survey and Mapping, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Flagship

MNF multibeam data from EM300 - all voyages (mnf:multibeam_em300)

MNF multibeam data from EM300 - all voyages. Deployed on RV Southern Surveyor. This layer shows estimates of the raw data extents.

MNF multibeam data from EM710 - all voyages (mnf:multibeam_em710)

RV Investigator EM710 multibeam coverage

Reson 8101 multibeam (mnf:multibeam_reson8101)

MNF multibeam data from Reson 8101. Deployed on RV Franklin. This layer shows estimates of the raw data extents.

Oil and Gas Production - Titles - 1950-2016 (nerp:oil_lease_areas)

Oil Spills AMSA (nerp:oil_spills_sum)

pCO2 measurements (mnf:pCO2_measurements)

plantation_land_llg_valuetype (png_values:plantation_land_llg_valuetype)

Radon measurements (mnf:radon_measurements)

Radon measurements from ANSTO

residSD_31July2014 (nerp:residSD_31July2014)

river_llg_valuetype (png_values:river_llg_valuetype)

seamount_knolls (ebsa:seamount_knolls)

seamount_knolls_base (ebsa:seamount_knolls_base)

seamount_seamounts (ebsa:seamount_seamounts)

seamount_seamounts_base (ebsa:seamount_seamounts_base)

2D Seismic Surveys 1961 to 1965 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1961to1965)

2D Seismic Surveys 1966 to 1970 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1966to1970)

2D Seismic Surveys 1971 to 1975 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1971to1975)

2D Seismic Surveys 1976 to 1980 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1976to1980)

2D Seismic Surveys 1981 to 1985 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1981to1985)

2D Seismic Surveys 1986 to 1990 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1986to1990)

2D Seismic Surveys 1991 to 1995 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1991to1995)

2D Seismic Surveys 1996 to 2000 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_1996to2000)

2D Seismic Surveys 2001 to 2005 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_2001to2005)

2D Seismic Surveys 2006 to 2010 (nerp:seismic2d_sum_2006to2010)

3D Seismic Surveys 1976 to 1980 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_1976to1980)

3D Seismic Surveys 1981 to 1985 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_1981to1985)

3D Seismic Surveys 1986 to 1990 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_1986to1990)

3D Seismic Surveys 1991 to 1995 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_1991to1995)

3D Seismic Surveys 1996 to 2000 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_1996to2000)

3D Seismic Surveys 2001 to 2005 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_2001to2005)

3D Seismic Surveys 2006 to 2010 (nerp:seismic3d_sum_2006to2010)

MNF singlebeam EK60 12kHz (RV Southern Surveyor) (mnf:singlebeam_ek60_12)

MNF singlebeam data from EK60- all voyages. Deployed on RV Southern Surveyor. This layer shows start to end extant of each line. They do not directly follow the voyage track if there are course changes.

MNF singlebeam EK60 18-333 kHz (RV Investigator) (mnf:singlebeam_ek60_12_333)

MNF singlebeam data from EK60 (38 to 120kHz band) - all voyages. Deployed on RV Investigator.

MNF singlebeam EK60 38-120 kHz (RV Southern Surveyor) (mnf:singlebeam_ek60_38_120)

MNF singlebeam data from EK60 (38 to 120kHz band) - all voyages. Deployed on RV Southern Surveyor. This layer shows start to end extant of each line. They do not directly follow the voyage track if there are course changes.

MNF Sub-bottom profiler SBP120 (RV Investigator) (mnf:singlebeam_sbp120)

MNF sub bottom profiler data from Simrad SBP120 - all voyages. Deployed on RV Investigator. This layer shows extant of each segy data file and the data should follow the voyage track.

MNF singlebeam TOPAS sub-bottom profiler (mnf:singlebeam_topas)

MNF sub bottom profiler data from Simrad SBP18 - all voyages. Deployed on RV Southern Surveyor. This layer shows extant of each segy data file and the data should follow the voyage track.

sociocultural_poly (png_values:sociocultural_poly)

sociocultural_pt (png_values:sociocultural_pt)

Cold Water Coral Predictions (Solenosmilia variabilis) (ebsa:sol180)

sst-chla-cat_season (ebsa:sst-chla-cat_season)

NESP D3 reefs - Tier 1 (local:tier-01_2016-10-10)

see http://metadata.imas.utas.edu.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/metadata.show?uuid=2ffb37a5-5c58-4ea9-a47d-5d526be31346 for metadata

NESP D3 reefs - Tier 2 (local:tier-02_2016-09-08)

MNF Towed CTD data - all voyages (mnf:trajectory_public)

A single layer of all towed CTD (Seasor, Bunyip and Nacelle) tracks from the RV Franklin and RV Southern Surveyor.

Sea Surface Temperature - Long Term Trend RMSE - 1993-2014 (nerp:trendRMSE_31July2014)

underway_data (aodn:underway_data)

Oil and Gas Production - pipelines (nerp:updatedpetroleumpipelines)

WCPFC Long Line sum (ebsa:wcfpc_pub_flag_ll_sum)

WCPFC Purse Seine (ebsa:wcfpc_pub_flag_ps_sum)

wcmc_013_seagrasspoints2005 (ebsa:wcmc_013_seagrasspoints2005)

wcmc_014_seagrasspolygons2005 (ebsa:wcmc_014_seagrasspolygons2005)

wcmc_coral_reef_2010 (ebsa:wcmc_coral_reef_2010)

wcmc_mangrove_usgs_2011 (ebsa:wcmc_mangrove_usgs_2011)

Oil and Gas Production - wells - 1950-2016 (nerp:wells_oil_gas)

whaling_records_seamap885 (ebsa:whaling_records_seamap885)

world_country_admin_boundaries (ebsa:world_countryFTPcodes_admin_boundaries)

DH downloaed 13/5/2015 from http://geocommons.com/overlays/33578.html This dataset displays country administrative boundaries across the world. The data includes both the country name and the 2-digit FIPS code for each country

world_eez_v8_2014_hr (ebsa:world_eez_v8_2014_hr)

world_gravity_map (local:world_gravity_map)

world_shorelines (ebsa:world_shorelines)

Worldmap from CAAB (local:worldmap)

Wildlife observations - all voyages (mnf:wov_public_data)

Wildlife observations from RV Investigator

MNF XBT casts - all voyages (mnf:xbt_public_data)

This dataset contains the processed Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) data collected on the Australian Marine National Facility RV Southern Surveyor between 2007 and 2012. XBT data typically comprises temperature and depth readings relayed to the surface at intervals of 0.1 seconds as the probe passes through the top few hundred metres of the ocean. This dataset has been QCed by the CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research's (CMAR's) Ocean Observing Networks (OON) group. The data can be retrieved via CMAR Data Trawler, please see link below. The data is also available via the international National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) (Southern Surveyor platform code: 09SS and call sign: VLHJ) and Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN)

Theme 2:Landscape Ecology : Sharks and Rays (Theme 2:Landscape Ecology : Sharks and Rays)

37005002_Broadnosesevengill-clip (nerp:37005002_Broadnosesevengill-clip)

37013003_spottedwobb (nerp:37013003_spottedwobb)

37013020_gulfwobbe (nerp:37013020_gulfwobbe)

37015001_draughtboard-clip (nerp:37015001_draughtboard-clip)

37015009_sawtailcatshark (nerp:37015009_sawtailcatshark)

37015013_whitefin_swellshark (nerp:37015013_whitefin_swellshark)

37017003_whiskery-clip (nerp:37017003_whiskery-clip)

37017008_schoolshark (nerp:37017008_schoolshark)

37018001_bronze-clip (nerp:37018001_bronze-clip)

37018003_dusky (nerp:37018003_dusky)

37020003_Brier_Shark (nerp:37020003_Brier_Shark)

37020005_blackbellylantern (nerp:37020005_blackbellylantern)

37020006_pikedspurdog-clip (nerp:37020006_pikedspurdog-clip)

37020048_greeneyespurdog (nerp:37020048_greeneyespurdog)

37023002_commonsawshark-clip (nerp:37023002_commonsawshark-clip)

37024001_australianangelshark (nerp:37024001_australianangelshark)

37024002_ornateangelshark (nerp:37024002_ornateangelshark)

37027011_southernFidlerRay (nerp:37027011_southernFidlerRay)

37031007_thornbackskate-clip (nerp:37031007_thornbackskate-clip)

37031009_peacockskate (nerp:37031009_peacockskate)

37031010_bightskate (nerp:37031010_bightskate)

37031028_greyskate (nerp:37031028_greyskate)

37035001_shorttailsting-clip (nerp:37035001_shorttailsting-clip)

37035002_blacksting (nerp:37035002_blacksting)

37039001_southerneagleRay-clip (nerp:37039001_southerneagleRay-clip)

37042001_ogilbysghostshark (nerp:37042001_ogilbysghostshark)

37042003_blackfinGhostshark (nerp:37042003_blackfinGhostshark)

37042005_SouthernChimaera (nerp:37042005_SouthernChimaera)

37043001_ElephantFish-clip (nerp:37043001_ElephantFish-clip)

Imagery Base Maps Earth Cover (Imagery Base Maps Earth Cover)

World: Bright Earth Basemap (e-Atlas) (World: Bright Earth Basemap (e-Atlas))

AU: Major Roads (CloudMade, OSM) (ea-be:AU_CloudMade-OSM_MajorRoads_Dec-2011)

This layer shows major roads for Australia, extracted from the OpenStreetMap project on December 2011. Copyright OpenStreetMap contributors, CC BY-SA This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

GBR: Dry reefs (GBRMPA) (ea-be:GBR_GBRMPA_GBR-dry-reef)

Major coral reef structures (as defined by the reef shoal edge) and tidal, drying or emergent reef areas within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

GBR Features: Reefs, Coastline (GBRMPA) (ea-be:GBR_GBRMPA_GBR-features)

This layer shows reefs, islands, Queensland mainland, cays and rock features.

GBR: Hillshading - gbr100 v1.0 (JCU) (ea-be:GBR_JCU_Bathymetry-gbr100_Hillshade)

This is hillshading derived from the GBR_JCU_Bathymetry-gbr100 dataset at its full resolution. It was created using ArcMap. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

QLD: Landuse - Human use, Agriculture, Water (e-Atlas, DSITIA) (ea-be:QLD_eAtlas-DSITIA_Bright-earth-Landuse_1999-2012)

This layer shows the Queensland landuse current (DSITIA, QLUMP) as of July 2012 grouped into areas of Human Use, Agriculture and Water areas such as lakes and rivers. This grouping was developed so the layer could be used as part of the Bright Earth e-Atlas basemap to provide high resolution detail to this map. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

Gulf of Papua Bathymetry Hillshading (GA) (ea-be:TS_GA_Gulf-of-Papua-bathymetry-100m-2008_Hillshade)

This layer shows hillshading derived from the Gulf of Papua Bathymetry (GA) grid. The bathymetry grid covers the Gulf of Papua and northern Australia with a resolution of ~110m (0.001 degrees). This dataset uses new multibeam sonar surveys to add much needed detail to a region of the seabed where previously little was known. In shallow Australian waters, bathymetry derived from Landsat satellite imagery was used to supplement traditionally acquired bathymetric data. For onshore areas, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data were used for topographic control. The hillshading was generated using ArcMap. The original bathymetry dataset is described in detail in: Daniell, J. J. (2008), Development of a bathymetric grid for the Gulf of Papua and adjacent areas: A note describing its development, J. Geophys. Res., 113, F01S15, [[http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000673|doi:10.1029/2006JF000673]] available under [[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/|Creative Commons Attribution license]] as outlined in [[metadata|https://eresearch.jcu.edu.au/tdh/data/69096b98-cb57-4833-97ee-ea5dad3e4b83]]

World: Cities (Natural Earth Data) (ea-be:World_NED_10m-cities)

This layer shows major towns and cities. World Cities and Towns derived from LANDSCAN data. Includes all admin-0 and many admin-1 capitals, major cities and towns, plus a sampling of smaller towns in sparsely inhabited regions. This dataset is part of the the Natural Earth Vector dataset available from http://naturalearthdata.com.

Bathymetry (200m, 1km, 2km, 4km, 5km, 7km) 1:10m (NE) (ea-be:World_NE_10m-bathymetry-200_1k_2k_4k_5k_7k_s)

This is a set of nested polygons at -200, -1,000, -2,000, -4,000, -5,000 and -7,000 meters. Created from SRTM Plus. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

World: Hillshading - SRTM30-plus v8.0 (e-Atlas, UCSD) (ea-be:World_e-Atlas-UCSD_SRTM30-plus_v8_Hillshading)

This layer shows hillshading derived from the [[http://topex.ucsd.edu/WWW_html/srtm30_plus.html|SRTM30 PLUS v8.0]] Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

World: Hillshading Low Res - SRTM30-plus v8.0 (e-Atlas, UCSD) (ea-be:World_e-Atlas-UCSD_SRTM30-plus_v8_Hillshading-lr)

This layer shows hillshading derived from a lower resolution smoothed version of the World_e-Atlas-UCSD_SRTM30-plus_v8.0. It is designed for use when displaying global maps. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

World: Bright Blue Marble Next Gen 2004-04 (e-Atlas) (ea-be:World_e-Atlas_Bright-BMNG-200404)

This layer shows a 500m resolution image of the world derived from the Blue Marble Next Generation April 2004 image. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

World: Coastline 1:1m (e-Atlas, VMap0, GA Coast100k) (ea-be:World_e-Atlas_VMap0-AU-Coast100k_Coast-split)

This layer shows coastline based on a combination of VMap0 and Australian Coast100k (GeoScience Australia). This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

World: Ocean 1:1m (e-Atlas, VMap0, GA Coast100k) (ea-be:World_e-Atlas_VMap0-AU-Coast100k_Ocean-split_S)

This layer shows ocean areas based on a combination of VMap0 and Australian Coast100k (GeoScience Australia). This layer is designed to be used in conjuction with the World_e-Atlas_VMap0-AU-Coast100k_Coast-split layer. This dataset was prepared as part of the [[http://e-atlas.org.au/data/ac57aa5a-233b-4c2c-bd52-1fb40a31f639 | Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap]] dataset collection.

Events (deployments and recoveries) (Events (deployments and recoveries))

Argo Deployments (mnf:ArgoDeployments)

A list of Argo floats deployed from MNF ships (1999 to present)

Glider Deployments from MNF voyages (mnf:GliderDeployments)

Gliders deployed or retrieved by MNF voyages. Data is managed by the ANFOG

Mooring Deployments and Recoveries (mnf:mooringsDeployments)

A list of moorings deployed or retrieved from MNF ships (1999 to present)

SRFME (SRFME)

Algal Biomass - SRFME Coastal Project (cmar:CATCH_HEADER_SRFME_VIEW)

The aim of the SRFME Coastal project is to characterize the coastal benthic ecosystems of southwestern WA. This layer shows algal biomass sites, taxa and densities from the Jurien Bay, Rottnest Island, Geographe Bay and Perth regions.

CTD casts - SRFME Project (cmar:CTD_HEADER_SRFME_VIEW)

CTD casts from the Biophysical Oceanography-SRFME project

MNF Underway Voyage Data (MNF Underway Voyage Data)

1986 (1986)

FR 01/86 (mnf:FR198601_VOYAGE)

This is RVFR underway processed data at 5 minute interval. Cruise FR 01/86 forms part of the WEPOCS (Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study) cruise

FR 02/86 (mnf:FR198602_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR02/86 (also known as PACLARK I) was undertaken to locate evidence of hydrothermal activity in the Western Woodlark Basin (east of Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Sea) and to map submarine geology in an area of ocean ridge propagation into a continental margin.

FR 04/86 (mnf:FR198604_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/86 was undertaken to determine the path of the high salinity Subtropical Lower Water into and within the Coral Sea and to survey a 56 m shallow at about 25.5 degrees S, 159 degrees E near Cape Bank for the Hydrographer of the Navy.

FR 05/86 (mnf:FR198605_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR5/86 was predominantly a benthic invertebrate biology sampling program confined to three major cross-shelf transects, one off Jervis Bay, one off Cape Howe, and one off Maria Island.

FR 07/86 (mnf:FR198607_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR07/86 was undertaken to investigate erosion and deposition of sediment in Bass Canyon and adjacent abyssal fans, the late-Quaternary sedimentary history of Bass Basin and also the origin and evolution of the seamounts in the Tasman Sea.

FR 08A/86 (mnf:FR198608_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR08A/86 was undertaken to study the Tasman Front, East Australian Current, fronts, eddy genesis, coastal upwelling and chlorophyll enrichment in conjunction with NOAA/AVHRR satellite imagery tests in the Tasman Sea.

FR 09/86 (mnf:FR198609_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR09/86 was undertaken to study the interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes and their influence on primary and secondary production in the Southern Ocean.

1987 (1987)

FR 02/87 (mnf:FR198702_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/87 was undertaken for an oceanographic survey of the summer upwelling off the Victoria/South Australia border. Cruise objectives included to map in 3 dimensions the currents and water properties of the upwelling plume, to conduct plankton and seabird observations.

FR 03/87 (mnf:FR198703_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/87 forms part of the Leeuwin Current Interdisciplinary Experiment (LUCIE) - moored instrument arrays. Work completed and data acquired included CTD sections off the Western Australian coast between Albany and Carnarvon.

FR 04/87 (mnf:FR198704_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/87 forms part of the Leeuwin Current Interdisciplinary Experiment (LUCIE) - formation off North West Shelf. Work completed and data acquired from Fremantle to Port Hedland included CTD, nutrient and biological stations.

FR 05/87 (mnf:FR198705_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/87 was undertaken to study heatflow in the Exmouth Plateau region and sediments and surface currents in the Exmouth, Cuvier and Naturaliste Plateaus.

FR 06/87 (mnf:FR198706_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/87 forms part of the Leeuwin Current Interdisciplinary Experiment (LUCIE). Cruise was undertaken to study the microscale turbulence and the momentum, heat budgets, velocities and water properties in the Leeuwin Current: on the shelf, above the slope, in its offshoots and eddies in the Indian Ocean between Dongara and Albany, Western Australia.

FR 07/87 (mnf:FR198707_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/87 was the final cruise of the Leeuwin Current Interdisciplinary Experiment (LUCIE) which was designed to investigate the dynamics of this unconventional eastern boundary current.

FR 08/87 (mnf:FR198708_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/87 was undertaken for a rock lobster larval and tuna larval survey; satellite sea surface temperature validation study and to examine the vertical distribution of organic particulates (lt 1mm) in the water column.

FR 09/87 (mnf:FR198709_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/87 was undertaken to examine the currents and water properties in the triangle formed by NW Australia and the Indonesian Archipelago with emphasis on the Pacific Indian Ocean throughflow, the South Equatorial Current, various subsurface features, mixing in the thermocline and currents on the NW Shelf.

FR 10/87 (mnf:FR198710_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/87 was undertaken to investigate the chemical and biological processes controlling primary production on the North West Shelf and the physical and chemical effects of tidal and wind mixing on nutrient cycling in the Gulf of Carpentaria.

1988 (1988)

FR 01/88 (mnf:FR198801_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/88 (also known as PACLARK II) was undertaken to locate evidence of hydrothermal activity in the Western Woodlark Basin (east of Papua New Guinea) and Goodenough Bay, and to map submarine geology in an area of ocean ridge propagation into a continental margin.

FR 02/88 (mnf:FR198802_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/88 was undertaken to investigate the roles that tidal and wind mixing of water masses and the presence of extensive seagrass beds may play in determining nutrient distribution and cycling in the Gulf of Carpentaria.

FR 03/88 (mnf:FR198803_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/88 was undertaken to examine the throughflow from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean in Australian waters northwest of Ashmore Reef and to further test and develop 'Prowas' (water sampler).

FR 04/88 (mnf:FR198804_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/88 forms part of the 3 following projects; Equatorial mixed layer and undercurrent turbulence experiment; Heat and freshwater budget north of Papua New Guinea and Petrology - geochemistry of lavas from seamounts in the New Guinea region.

FR 05/88 (mnf:FR198805_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/88 forms part of BROBS (Barrier Reef Ocean Boundary Study). Cruise objectives included the study of the physical, biological and chemical oceanographic processes in the oceanic boundary zone bordering the Australian and Papuan Barrier Reef systems.

FR 06/88 (mnf:FR198806_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/88 was undertaken to sample benthic invertebrates from the continental slope off north eastern Australia (Murray Island to Cape Sidmouth) in the Coral Sea.

FR 07/88 (mnf:FR198807_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/88 (also known as CIDARIS II) was undertaken to study deep bottom fauna of the Barrier Reef Shelf and adjacent Coral Sea.

FR 08/88 (mnf:FR198808_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/88 was undertaken to dredge samples of volcanic rock from the Lord Howe Seamount and Tasmantid Seamount chains in the Tasman Sea, to provide the basis for geochronological, geochemical and petrological studies of the seamounts to further elucidate the evolution and origin of these two parallel seamount chains.

FR 09/88 (mnf:FR198809_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/88 was undertaken for sampling of benthic, demersal and mesopelagic fauna from the continental slope of south eastern Australia off Nowra, Bass Strait and off Freycinet Peninsula, from a depth range of 400 m to 3000 m.

FR 10/88 (mnf:FR198810_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/88 was undertaken for bottom photography and sampling in waters off the the south east coast of Tasmania including the jarosite dumping area, and to test the following equipment; Bunyip - in the CTD profiling mode in shallow water, to compare the Franklin XBT unit and a new XBT satellite transmission unit developed by ARGOS (France), and to conduct an experiment to see if it is possible to determine ship's heading to 0.1 deg. using GPS in a differential mode.

FR 11/88 (mnf:FR198811_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 11/88 was undertaken to determine the location of the Subtropical Convergence (STC) between Australia and New Zealand in the Tasman Sea and to develop an indicator for the position of the STC which can be derived from satellite data.

1989 (1989)

FR 01/89 (mnf:FR198901_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/89 was undertaken to study the South Australian upwelling zone and to investigate the use of real-time numerical models running on board ship, as an aid to the direction of an oceanographic cruise.

FR 02/89 (mnf:FR198902_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/89 was undertaken to study fronts and exchange processes in Spencer Gulf, SA. To evaluate the extent of Bight water intrusion into the Gulf/Shelf zone, and its role in the dynamics of the frontal zone and to study summertime upwelling in south-eastern South Australian waters (Beachport in the north to Portland in the south).

FR 03/89 (mnf:FR198903_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/89 was undertaken for a geological (Quaternary history) and physical oceanography survey of Gulf St. Vincent and adjacent continental shelf, and also to recover four magnetometers, previously deployed off Robe (cruise FR 01/89) in South Australian waters.

FR 04/89 (mnf:FR198904_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/89 was undertaken (alongside the FRV Ngerin) to investigate the frontal activity at the mouth of Spencer Gulf, and its bearing on the apparent inhibition of fluid exchange across the Gulf entrance during the summer and to evaluate the extent of Bight water intrusion into the Gulf/shelf zone, and its role in the dynamics of the frontal zone.

FR 05/89 (mnf:FR198905_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/89 was undertaken for a survey of the benthic invertebrates from the Lord Howe Rise and prominent submarine seamounts between the NSW coast and the Lord Howe Rise to establish the extent of the fauna in each area and to investigate the diversity of these faunas in relation to the geological age of the seamounts.

FR 06/89 (mnf:FR198906_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/89 was undertaken to study and collect whiting (Sillago sp.) and other fish larvae from the waters on the continental shelf off northern New South Wales and to examine their distribution and genetic relatedness in relation to oceanographic data collected in the same region.

FR 07/89 (mnf:FR198907_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/89 was undertaken as a joint Australian-New Zealand initiative to investigate the physical and chemical features of the waters of Foveaux Strait and neighbouring waters around the South Island of New Zealand.

FR 08/89 (mnf:FR198908_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/89 was undertaken to investigate the structure of the Bass Strait water outflow and the associated undercurrent along the eastern Australian continental slope between Bass Strait and Jervis Bay, NSW.

FR 10/89 (mnf:FR198910_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/89 was undertaken to investigate ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. Cruise objectives were to estimate the volume transport (and its time variability) of the EAC along the east Australian coast and in the Tasman Front using CTD, ADCP and current meter moorings

FR 11/89 (mnf:FR198911_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 11/89 was undertaken to investigate ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. Cruise objectives were to estimate the volume transport (and its time variability) of the EAC along the east Australian coast and in the Tasman Front using CTD, ADCP and current meter moorings; to determine the large-scale general circulation of the Tasman Sea using patterns of tracers (temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients) and of density to estimate geostrophic circulation and to determine temporal changes in surface pressure gradient between two points on the Lord Howe Rise, one at 28 degrees S and the other at 38 degrees S using two independent methods (steric height estimate and GEOSAT altimetry). A total of 78 CTD stations and 61 XBTs were completed. ADCP and underway data were continuously recorded. Most of the data appears to be of high quality (with some doubt about some of the deep nutrient data).NOTE The datasets from FR 10/89 and FR 11/89 were merged and processed with one name: FR198910note, a WOCE cruise report was written, in which "FR 10/89 leg 1" refers to FR 10/89, and "FR 10/89 leg 2" refers to FR 11/89).

FR 12/89 (mnf:FR198912_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 12/89 was undertaken to study the ecology of the late stage phyllosoma larvae and puerulus stage of the Southern Rock lobster, Jasus novaehollandiae (now known as Jasus edwardsii).

FR 13/89 (mnf:FR198913_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 13/89 was undertaken for East Australian Current studies in the Tasman and Coral Sea. In addition, there were several piggyback projects conducted: eddy survey with Bunyip; stability and noise tests of a towed acoustic sampling system (TASS); running a real time numerical model of currents on the ship's computer and the Sydney ocean outfalls study.

1990 (1990)

FR 01/90 (mnf:FR199001_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/90 forms part of the JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study). It took place in the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean east and south of Tasmania, to latitude 51 degrees south, with the majority of sampling along longitude 152 E. Cruise objectives included study of the physical structure, nutrients, biomass of phyoplankton and zooplankton, and primary production around the Subtropical Convergence (STC); to determine the relationship between satellite measurements of sea surface temperature and physical and chemical oceanography from underway studies; to relate ocean colour (from airborne and handheld sensors) to chlorophyll and biomass; to study CO2 and related biological processes around the STC; to study the distribution of fish larvae; and to investigate mixing across the STC.

FR 02/90 (mnf:FR199002_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/90 was undertaken to investigate ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. Cruise objectives were to estimate the volume transport (and its time variability) of the EAC along the east Australian coast and in the Tasman Front using CTD, ADCP and current meter moorings; to determine the large-scale general circulation of the Tasman Sea using patterns of tracers (temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients) and of density to estimate geostrophic circulation and to determine temporal changes in surface pressure gradient between two points on the Lord Howe Rise, one at 28 degrees S and the other at 38 degrees S using two independent methods (steric height estimate and GEOSAT altimetry).

FR 03/90 (mnf:FR199003_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/90 was undertaken to investigate ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. Cruise objectives were to estimate the volume transport (and its time variability) of the EAC along the east Australian coast and in the Tasman Front using CTD, ADCP and current meter moorings; to determine the large-scale general circulation of the Tasman Sea using patterns of tracers (temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients) and of density to estimate geostrophic circulation and to determine temporal changes in surface pressure gradient between two points on the Lord Howe Rise, one at 28 degrees S and the other at 38 degrees S using two independent methods (steric height estimate and GEOSAT altimetry).

FR 04/90 (mnf:FR199004_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/90 was undertaken in the Coral Sea, Southern Great Barrier Reef region to determine the processes responsible for scattering of coastal trapped waves around Fraser Island and the Capricorn Channel, and the tidally induced mixing processes on the continental slope near the Hydrographers Passage.

FR 05/90 (mnf:FR199005_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/90 was undertaken to collect seismic information and piston cores from the Great Barrier Reef shelf, and slope adjacent trough in order to: provide ground-truth data for the GLORIA imagery; investigate sediment transport from shelf to basin; investigate the geo-mechanical properties of slope sediment with respect to mass-failures evident on the GLORIA mosaic and to gather data on water quality, including fluorometer and thermosalinographic measurements for use in the interpretation of reflectance from sateloscience equipment form Franklin.

FR 06/90 (mnf:FR199006_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/90 was undertaken to study the Coral Sea circulation, comprising the SEC, the Great Barrier Reef Undercurrent, the clockwise circulation around the Gulf of Papua and the outflows to the Tasman and Solomon Seas. Ostracod sampling, NOAA satellite ground truthing and infra-red radiometer inter-comparisons were also conducted.

FR 07/90 (mnf:FR199007_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/90 is part of a continuing series focused on air-sea interaction processes for the western tropical Pacific Ocean. The Bismarck Air-Sea Interaction and Circulation Study (BASICS) and the Australia - Japan Equatorial moored instrument array study were conducted on this cruise. Cruise objectives included to measure all components of the heat budget of one or more parcels of water in the Bismarck Sea, measure the C02 flux over the ocean and relate its magnitude to the difference in C02 concentration between the water and the air, and to recover and redeploy the Australia/Japan current meter mooring on the equator at 147 degrees E.

FR 08/90 (mnf:FR199008_VOYAGE)

FR 08/90 forms part of the JGOFS study - Inorganic and Organic Carbon Cycles in Equatorial Waters. The cruise track was along longitudes 147 and 155 degrees E, between 5 degrees S and 10 degrees N and back, in the Solomon Sea and the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Additional samples were taken at one station in the Coral Sea. Cruise objectives included profiles of pH, carbon dioxide and fluorescence, measurements of primary and secondary productivity, investigation of processes of biomass production, and lipid and pigment analyses of phytoplankton community structure.

FR 09/90 (mnf:FR199009_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/90 was undertaken to determine the processes responsible for scattering of coastal trapped waves around Fraser Island and the Capricorn Channel, and the tidally induced mixing processes on the continental slope near the Hydrographers Passage, in the Coral Sea, southern Great Barrier Reef region.

FR 10/90 (mnf:FR199010_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/90 was undertaken to study mixing and subduction in three different regions in the Tasman Sea: separation of the East Australian Current (EAC) off the NSW coast, a mature EAC eddy and at the Subtropical Convergence (STC). A mature eddy was located at approximately 36 degrees S and STC was located approximately 46 degrees S, 153 degrees E.

1991 (1991)

FR 01/91 (mnf:FR199101_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/91 was principally a deployment cruise. 11 moorings were laid for the "Bass Strait Interdisciplinary Study" and 5 moorings were laid for the "Low Frequency Circulation Study at the western end of Bass Strait".

FR 02/91 (mnf:FR199102_VOYAGE)

Cruise Fr 02/91 concentrated on a GLORIA sidescan and SEABEAM bathymetry database (collected by HMAS Cook in 1989) encompassing the Beachport Plateau, Sprigg Canyon and surrounds, and the Murray Canyon, South Australia.

FR 03/91 (mnf:FR199103_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/91 was undertaken to collect the first microstructure measurements from the Southern Ocean in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and to compare these with the internal wave activity.

FR 04/91 (mnf:FR199104_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/91 was undertaken to retrieve moorings (previously deployed during cruise FR 01/91), and to collect water samples for routine hydrology and other chemical assays; to collect sediment samples to determine chemical levels; to collect atmospheric gas samples for the analysis of CO2 and other tracer gases; to collect sponges to detect sources of chemical, biochemical and pharmacological useful substances from the Bass Strait region and Sydney's deep water ocean outfall at Malabar (DOOM) offshore from Botany Bay, NSW.

FR 05/91 (mnf:FR199105_VOYAGE)

Cruise Fr 05/91 was undertaken to investigate submarine slope failure on the NSW continental margin and the biostratigraphy of the continental shelf off Sydney, adjacent to the Mt Woolnough volcanic complex.

FR 06/91 (mnf:FR199106_VOYAGE)

Cruise Fr 06/91 forms part of the Joint Australia - Japan moored instrument array in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. The third Australian equatorial mooring was successfully deployed 3 miles west of the Tokai mooring (147 degrees E). The Japanese mooring was not recovered and all equipment is lost. 27 hours of high quality ADCP data were collected at the mooring site. A Tokai University mooring at 2 degrees N, 147 degrees E was recovered successfully and a CTD section was completed along 147 degrees as planned. The moored current meter array in the New Guinea coastal undercurrent was also conducted. The principal aim of this experiment is to directly measure the currents in and transport through Vitiaz Strait, PNG, over an annual cycle.

FR 07/91 (mnf:FR199107_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/91 was undertaken for Coral Sea studies which included circulation and hydrography of the southern GBR, EAC and frontal convergence zones; fisheries and relationships with topography and fronts; numerical circulation models; primary productivity of the surface layer; collection of ground-truth data to validate the recently launched ERS-1 satellite remote sensing systems using ship-board data acquisition systems; SSTs measurements along-track using ship-mounted infra-red radiometers and to collect living benthic ostracods (continuation of work from FR 06/90) from different water depths, with different bottom temperatures.

FR 08/91 (mnf:FR199108_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/91 (also known as PACLARK V and PACMANUS I) was undertaken to search for hydrothermal vents and associated mineral deposits in the western Woodlark Basin, Solomon Sea and the eastern Manus Basin, Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea.

FR 09/91 (mnf:FR199109_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/91 was undertaken to obtain surface truth data on ocean currents in support of ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) swaths that cut across boundaries of the East Australian Current (EAC).

FR 10/91 (mnf:FR199110_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/91 was undertaken to study ocean transport in the Tasman and Coral Seas and to collect ground truth data for validation of the ATSR (Along Track Scanning Radiometer).

1992 (1992)

FR 01/92 (mnf:FR199201_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/92 forms part of the Sydney Outfall Studies. This cruise was undertaken to trace sewage in Sydney's coastal waters and sediments using organic markers. Repeat sampling and subsequent chemical analyses for sites examined during cruise FR 13/89 in Sydney's nearshore waters was conducted.

FR 02/92 (mnf:FR199202_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/92 (also know as CIDARIS III) was undertaken to collect samples of deep sea bottom fauna from the NE Australian Slope and the adjacent Coral Sea. Survey methods included grabs, sledges, beam trawls and underway instrumentation. The macrofauna collected by sledge and beam trawl represents an excellent sample of the bathyal and upper abyssal benthic fauna and complements the species list obtained in particular during cruise FR 07/88 (CIDARIS II).

FR 03/92 (mnf:FR199203_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/92 was undertaken to study productivity and vertical fluxes of carbon, nutrients and trace metals in northern Australian continental shelf systems. Time series stations were occupied at the following four sites; Timor Sea, north of the Cobourg Peninsula, Gulf of Carpentaria and Gulf of Papua. One primary production station was also conducted in the deep Coral Sea. Also during the cruise an opportunity arose to measure the response of plankton community to disturbance by a tropical cyclone (Neville) on an open continental shelf.

FR 04/92 (mnf:FR199204_VOYAGE)

Cruise Fr 04/92 was undertaken to study the geology of the Queensland Trough, the shelf edge and the continental slope of the Great Barrier Reef shelf and McDermott Seamount in the Coral Sea.

FR 05/92 (mnf:FR199205_VOYAGE)

FR 05/92 forms part of the JGOFS study - Inorganic and Organic Carbon Cycles in Equatorial Waters. The cruise track was west and north of Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Sea and the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to 10 degrees N. Cruise objectives included profiles of pH, carbon dioxide and fluorescence, measurements of primary and secondary productivity, studies of vertical carbon fluxes, investigation of processes of biomass production, and pigment analyses of phytoplankton community structure.

FR 06/92 (mnf:FR199206_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/92 forms part of the TOGA-COARE study. The joint Australia-Japan moored intrument array commenced in November 1989 and involves maintaining a current meter mooring on the equator at 147 degrees E. The mooring is part of the TOGA (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere) moored observing array for observing currents in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This cruise was the sixth cycle, marking the end of the CSIRO involvement in the field phase of operation and the end of the third Tokai University surface mooring deployment. The moored current meter array in the New Guinea coastal undercurrent is to directly measure the currents in and transport through Vitiaz Strait, PNG, over an annual cycle.

FR 07/92 (mnf:FR199207_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/92 was undertaken to study ocean transport in the Tasman and Coral Seas. Scientific objectives included to estimate the volume transport of the EAC at 23 degrees S and 30 degrees S and to estimate the time variability of this transport at 30 degrees S and using patterns of tracers (temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients) and of density to estimate geostrophic circulation (baroclinic plus barotropic) at all depths; to complete (in collaboration with US scientists) a section between South America and New Zealand at about 32 degrees S, to estimate the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes and also to sample for, and analyse on board, dimethyl sulphide in surface and sub-surface waters.

FR 08/92 (mnf:FR199208_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/92 was undertaken to examine the physical and biological oceanography around two isolated reefs in the Coral Sea: Cato Reef (23 degrees S, 155 degrees E) and Wreck Reef (22 degrees S, 155 degrees E). Cruise objectives included to determine phytoplankton abundance and productivity about each reef, and to relate these results to the physical measurements and to obtain EZ net and surface samples in the wake of the reefs and in the free stream during both day and night, and to relate the health and abundance of larval fish to the physical environment and primary production.

FR 09/92 (mnf:FR199209_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/92 forms part of TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere - Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment). Studies of the mixed layer heat budget of the equatorial West Pacific Ocean were conducted. The IFA (Intensive Flux Array) of COARE, was centred at 2 degrees S, 156 degrees E. Flux intercomparisons were conducted between ships and an aircraft in the IFA for one day during the cruise. On this cruise a number of special purpose meteorological sensors were installed by CEM (Centre for Environmental Mechanics) on various locations on the ship.

1993 (1993)

FR 01/93 (mnf:FR199301_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/93 forms part of TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere - Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment). Cruise objectives included to measure all components of the surface layer heat budget to order 10 W/m -2, to observe the response of the upper ocean to an injection of freshwater due to rain, to measure turbulent fluxes of heat and salt, to obtain accurate measurement of skin temperature for satellite based SST measurements and to intercompare flux measurements with neighbouring research vessels and aircraft.

FR 02/93 (mnf:FR199302_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/93 was undertaken to examine the physical and biological oceanography around two isolated reefs in the Coral Sea: Cato Reef (23 degrees S, 155 degrees E) and Wreck Reef (22 degrees S, 155 degrees E). Cruise objectives included to determine the nature of hydrodynamic processes near the reefs and their effects on the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton and larval fish.

FR 03/93 (mnf:FR199303_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/93 (also known as PASMADES) was undertaken to identify and measure the flux of detritus exported from Papuan rivers bordering the Gulf of Papua and deposited on the adjacent continental margin, and to develop a carbon budget of the mineralisation and incorporation of the material into the food-chain.

FR 04/93 (mnf:FR199304_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/93 was undertaken for a seismic survey and sampling program at the Fly River, northern Great Barrier Reef junction, Gulf of Papua. Cruise objectives included to identify high and low level patterns of sediment transport and deposition; to define major deposition environments, and to derive a conceptual model for sedimentation patterns.

FR 05/93 (mnf:FR199305_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/93 (also known as PACMANUS-II) was undertaken to survey recent and current hydrothermal vent sites on the seafloor of the eastern Manus Basin spreading zone, in PNG and Tavui Calder (north of Rabual) and to collect samples of vent plumes, mineral deposits, and associated rocks and sediments.

FR 06/93 (mnf:FR199306_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/93 was undertaken for deep ocean circulation studies of the Tasman and Coral Seas. Cruise objectives included to estimate deep circulation and water mass properties through the deepest parts of the Coral and Tasman Sea Basins; to estimate the zonal transports (at all depths) into the western boundary current region of the South Pacific and to estimate the transport of deep water between the Coral and Solomon Sea Basins, between the Coral and Tasman Sea basins ; to determine the latitudinal differences in primary production and photosynthetic rate parameters, to examine how primary production affects near surface pC02 distributions, and to model the processes that determine the uptake of C02. The survey included sampling along Pacific line P11 as part of WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment).

FR 07/93 (mnf:FR199307_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/93 was undertaken to study ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. To determine the seasonal variability of the EAC and thus the variability in southward heat flux; to estimate the variability in meridional flow between Tasmania and New Zealand; and to recover moorings measuring transport in the EAC at 30 degrees S.

FR 08/93 (mnf:FR199308_VOYAGE)

FR 08/93 forms part of the JGOFS study - Inorganic and Organic Carbon Cycles in Equatorial Waters. The cruise track was along longitude 155 E, between 10 degrees S and 10 degrees N and back, in the Solomon sea and the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cruise objectives included profiles of pH, carbon dioxide and fluorescence, measurements of primary and secondary productivity, studies of vertical carbon fluxes, investigation of processes of biomass production, and pigment analyses of phytoplankton community structure.

FR 09/93 (mnf:FR199309_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/93 was undertaken to survey the outfalls and distribution of metallic and organic contaminants in shelf sediments in coastal waters off Sydney. A total of 155 stations were occupied with surface sediment collected at all sites. Station sampling included: CTDs, ADCPs, sediment grabs and coring, zoo plankton tows and other associated instrumentation. Numerous water, biological and sediment samples were collected for analyses aboard and for laboratory study. Additional sites were sampled at Providential Head and Cape Banks as part of a research contract performed by the Division of Oceanography for the Sutherland Shire Council.

FR 10/93 (mnf:FR199310_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/93 was undertaken to conduct Bunyip and SeaSoar trials to test the modifications under various tow conditions to determine their suitability. Other cruise objectives included to collect oceanographic data from within 5 km of two ground tracks of the TOPEX-POSEIDON satellite for comparison and validation of the satellite's altimeter.

1994 (1994)

FR 01/94 (mnf:FR199401_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/94 was undertaken to determine the position of the subtropical convergence (STC) off the east and south-east coast of Tasmania during the last glacial/interglacial cycle through the study of deep sea cores.

FR 02/94 (mnf:FR199402_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/94 was undertaken to determine the baroclinic current structure of the coastal waters off Sydney, and the effects on the distribution of nutrients and planktonic fish.

FR 03/94 (mnf:FR199403_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/94 was undertaken to investigate ocean transport in the Tasman Sea. Cruise objectives were to estimate the volume transport (and its time variability) of the EAC along the east Australian coast and in the Tasman Front using CTD, ADCP and current meter moorings; to determine the large-scale general circulation of the Tasman Sea using patterns of tracers (temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients) and of density to estimate geostrophic circulation. Current meter moorings were recovered from near Coffs Harbour (previously deployed on FR 10/89 & FR 11/89). Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 04/94 (mnf:FR199404_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/94 was undertaken to determine the reasons for the daily variability in physical and biological oceanography off the Sydney coast. The baroclinic current structure, and the propagation of internal waves from the shelf break shorewards, and in the corresponding effects of varying deep water masses on ichthyoplankton composition were investigated. Survey methods included CTD and ADCP transects along the "Bondi line" (from Ben Buckler to 20 nm offshore), EZ and surface net tows for plankton sampling, and underway instrumentation. A magnetometer package (under development) was tested on the passage to Hobart.

FR 05/94 (mnf:FR199405_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/94 was undertaken to sample benthic fauna along a depth gradient (50-3000 m) and a longitudinal gradient (116 degrees E to 139 degrees E) on the southern Australian continental shelf and slope (VIC to WA) and to relate this to sedimentary regimes, comparing extensive biogenic calcareous sediments with terrigenous deposits from the Murray-Darling system. Also to collect sponges, tunicates and other sessile invertebrates for bioactive substances. Sampling methods included epibenthic sled, Smith and McIntyre grab, boxcorer, and beam trawl. Underway instrumentation recorded data during the cruise. Due to bad weather and loss of time benthic invertebrates were sampled from only two of the three transects planned; from Portland, Victoria and Victor Harbour, South Australia.

FR 06/94 (mnf:FR199406_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/94 is the third cruise in a series investigating the following parameters along Australia's southern margin; to investigate cool-water carbonates; obtain high-resolution sub-bottom profiles to determine Neogene and Quaternary structures and geological history; determine sediment distribution and dynamics on a major east-west oriented open-platform continental shelf fronting a long-fetch open ocean viz. the Southern Ocean; determine distribtuion of bryozoan species present and to obtain basic physical oceanographic measurements for the continental margin to gain insight into oceanographic parameters that may affect biofacies distribution.

FR 07/94 (mnf:FR199407_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/94 was undertaken to study the current structure of the Great Australian Bight, its relation to the Leeuwin Current, and its exchange with the Southern Ocean and also to determine the distribution and abundance of pilchard eggs and larvae across the south coast of Western Australia and the Great Australian Bight in relation to the Leewuin Current.

FR 08/94 (mnf:FR199408_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/94 was undertaken to study ocean transport in the Leeuwin Current and in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Cruise objectives included to determine the seasonal variability of the Leeuwin Current near 20 degrees S and thus the variability in southward oceanic heat flux near north-western Australia, by measuring the current's transport and water mass characteristics using current meters (an Australian contribution to WOCE); to measure the transport in the equatorial current system at 80 degrees E using current meters and to determine the depth averaged water velocity in the Leeuwin Current near 20 degrees S by measuring the magnetic and electric field fluctuations associated with it, using ocean floor magnetometers and electrometers.

FR 09/94 (mnf:FR199409_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/94 forms part of TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment). Cruise was undertaken to obtain meteorological and oceanographical data for air-sea interaction studies in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Survey methods included meteorological instrumentation, radiometers, optical rain gauge, drifting buoy, Seasnake (a very high precision thermistor in the end of a 5 m garden hose measuring the temperature of the top few centimetres of water), ADCP, CTDs and underway instrumentation.

FR 10/94 (mnf:FR199410_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/94 forms part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). This cruise was undertaken to determine the movement of Antarctic Intermediate Water and Indian Central Water in the Great Australian Bight and possible exchange between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the depth range of these water masses. To investigate the flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. Three sections extending meridionally to 48 degrees S along 120 degrees 42'E, zonally along 48 degrees S to 132 degrees E and meridionally along 132 degrees E to form a closed box with the Australian south coast were completed.

FR 11/94 (mnf:FR199411_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 11/94 was undertaken to examine the intrusions of cold sub-Antartic water that reach north and west from 37 to 38 degrees S towards the southern WA shelf edge and interact with the summer Leeuwin Current. In addition, to measure currents and water properties in the Great Australian Bight; to gather information on unusual associations of seabirds away from their breeding colonies with respect to the effect of the Leeuwin current and to collect blue crab larvae and pilchard larve for further studies.

1995 (1995)

FR 01/95 (mnf:FR199501_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/95 was undertaken to study internal wave dynamics and primary production across a shelf and slope region on the North West Shelf. Survey methods included moorings containing current meters, thermistor strings, ADCPs and water level recorders (mooring recovery FR 04/95). In addition, repeated CTD and ADCP stations along two cross-shelf/slope transects were conducted. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruise FR 04/95.

FR 02/95 (mnf:FR199502_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/95 was undertaken for primary production studies at outer-shelf sites along the NW shelf of WA under summer conditions. Sampling methods included sediment trap deployments with infiltrix in-situ water samplers (hydrocarbon sampling) and floating light traps (larval fish sampling); net tows to collect Trichodesmium; water sampling collected by clean techniques for near-surface iron and trace metal determinations; hydrographic stations; internal wave activity observations at all of the time series stations (these observations will complement ongoing internal wave studies carried out on the southern NW shelf); servicing of tide gauges and moorings, and deployment of a pressure sensor at a sub-tidal location on the Ashmore Reef flat east of the main anchorage entrance (12 deg. 12.85'S, 122 deg. 59.78'E) in support of Indonesian throughflow studies. Samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 03/95 (mnf:FR199503_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/95 forms part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Repeat hydrographic sections were conducted in the east Indian Ocean between Australia and the boundary of the Indonesian territorial waters (along the IX1 Volunteer Observing Ship Track). Survey methods included ADCPs, CTDs, XBTs, and underway instrumentation. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Preliminary data reveal a property field rich in mesoscale and fine structure. At least two sharp property fronts between waters of subtropical South Indian and those of Pacific/Indonesian origin are evident near 18 deg. S and 16 deg. S in the upper 500 db. The change in salinity across these fronts is around 0.5. An extremely fresh 80 m thick layer was found north of about 13 deg. S. This layer appeared to be moving southwards at over 1 kt, a feature of the velocity field that persisted for the several days of sampling in that region. An opportunistic ADCP/XBT survey was made of the Leeuwin Current which encloses four ocean volumes (Fremantle-Abrolhos, Abrolhos-Carnarvon, Carnarvon-Point Farquhar, Point Farquhar-Exmouth). Preliminary analysis of these data show a robust Leeuwin Current flowing south at the shelf break, except off Fremantle and Exmouth. Off Fremantle the main current core is headed directly offshore and off Exmouth, the current was absent from the shelf break and appeared to be flowing southwards in deeper waters offshore.

FR 04/95 (mnf:FR199504_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/95 was undertaken to study internal wave dynamics and primary production across a shelf and slope region on the North West Shelf. Survey methods included recovery of moorings (previously deployed FR 01/95) containing current meters, thermistor strings, ADCPs and water level recorders. In addition, repeated CTD and ADCP stations were occupied at three locations. Magnetometer moorings (previously deployed FR 08/94) were also recovered and trial runs of a magnetometer measurements through the water to measure depth-averaged current flow. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruise FR 01/95.

FR 05/95 (mnf:FR199505_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/95 was undertaken to investigate the mass mortality of pilchards (Sardinops neopilchardus) off the Western Australian west coast. The fish kill had commenced off the Eyre Peninsula (near Adelaide) in March 1995 and spread in both directions along the coastline, reaching Perth and Sydney in May. A National Task Force comprising scientists from five state fishery authorities, three CSIRO Divisions and several Universites were assembled. Franklin was in Fremantle as the 'kill front' passed and was available for two and a half days to coordinate physical and biological oceanographic data acquisition from the vicinity of the fish kills. No obvious explanation of the fish kill was forthcoming on this cruise. Data and samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 06/95 (mnf:FR199506_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/95 was undertaken to study the flow of bottom, deep and intermediate waters into the Western Australian Basin of the Indian Ocean. Primary aim of this cruise was to deploy ten current meters between Cape Mentelle and Broken Plateau, this was done successfully. Survey methods included ADCPs, CTD casts (a total of 39, the first 28 of these were on the same line as that of a cruise of RRS Charles Darwin in 1987 and many of these 28 casts were designed to be at the same position as casts from that cruise), and underway instrumentation. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 07/95 (mnf:FR199507_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/95 is the fourth cruise in a series investigating cool-water carbonate sedimentation and phytoplankton productivity along Australia's southern margin. Cruise was multi disciplinary, but with the emphasis on geoscientific aspects. Survey methods included precision depth profiling; rock, sediment, biota sampling by means of pipe dredging, epibenthic sled dredging, beam trawling and grabbing; water sampling and analysis by means of CTD and flow-through fluorometry; XBTs; underway instrumentation; ADCP and sea-floor photography. Data, sediment, biota and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 08/95 (mnf:FR199508_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/95 forms part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Repeat hydrographic sections were completed between Western Australia and the southern boundary of the Indonesian territorial waters (roughly 9 degrees S). A second opportunistic ADCP/XBT survey of the Leeuwin Current was completed and also a SeaSoar section in the hydrographic front at 15 degrees S in the Indian Ocean. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 09/95 (mnf:FR199509_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/95 (also known as MCTEX - maritime continental thunderstorms experiment) was undertaken to study air-sea interactions in the region of the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst and Melville) and the Beagle Gulf, located approximately 50 km off the Northern Territory coast of Australia. Surface gravity wave generaton, response of the water column to air-sea fluxes and air-sea fluxes were investigated. Survey methods included bulk and turbulent flux measurements, waverider deployments, ADCP/CEM-ADCP, CTDs, XBTs, underway instrumentation, SeaSoar and Seasnake tows. Silverfish CTD trials and flux intercomparison runs with the FIAMS Cessna were also conducted. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 10/95 (mnf:FR199510_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/95 was undertaken to study the history of oceanic changes in the east Indian Ocean off the WA coast. Survey methods included CTDs, gravity and multiple cores, plankton tows and underway instrumentation. Sediment, water, benthic and planktonic samples were collected to build an ecological database on organisms of use for the reconstruction of past oceanic conditions. Samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

1996 (1996)

FR 01/96 (mnf:FR199601_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/96 was undertaken to study holocene biogenic sedimentation on the continental margin of Western Australia, between 23 degrees S (Ningaloo) to 32 degrees S (Fremantle).

FR 02/96 (mnf:FR199602_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/96 was undertaken to study the ecology and palaeoecology of marine micro-organisms; their use as indicators of changes in palaeoenvironmental conditions and interpret the late-Glacial and Holocene climatic history of the eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia.

FR 03/96 (mnf:FR199603_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/96 was undertaken to determine the nature of sedimentation in the Northwest Shelf around the Rowley Shoals, Scott Reef and Ashmore Reef during the last glacial maximum.

FR 04/96 (mnf:FR199604_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/96 was undertaken to determine the distribution and abundance of scaly mackerel (Sardinella lemuru) eggs and larvae including the influence of the Leeuwin Current on the depth stratification of eggs and larvae along the west coast of WA. Spawning season of Sardinella was almost over at the time of cruise and the sampling altered to conduct a more general larval survey from North West Cape to Fremantle. Seabird observations were also conducted to examine the distribution and densities in relation to oceanic factors off WA.

FR 05/96 (mnf:FR199605_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/96 was undertaken to collect data from the Perth Basin in the east Indian Ocean to construct an inverse model to study mixing processes and property fluxes in this region. Survey methods included ADCP, CTDs and underway instrumentation. A large amount of surface data on chlorophyll and phytoplankton was also collected to investigate horizontal changes in species composition across hydrographic fronts and to correlate continuous chlorophyll measurements with discrete samples of phytoplankton species composition.

FR 06/96 (mnf:FR199606_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/96 was undertaken to determine the seasonal variability of the Leeuwin Current near 20 degrees S in the east Indian Ocean using current meters and thus the meridional transport of heat associated with the current (an Australian contribution to WOCE). Primary aim of the cruise was to recover the ICM6 Mooring array. Four out of the six moorings were recovered (two acoustic releases on Mooring 4 and 5 failed).

FR 07/96 (mnf:FR199607_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/96 was undertaken to study freshwater and heat budgets in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Primarily to measure the spatially inhomogeneous freshwater input. An instrumented drifting buoy was deployed at 2 degrees S, 93 degrees E and followed for several days. Radar images (3cm) were recorded at 10 minute intervals through the drift, for use in estimating the rainfall field away from the ship and buoy. Survey methods included boom and meteorological instrumentation, SeaSoar and silverfish deployments, ADCP, CTDs, radiometer measurements and TASCO infrared radiation thermometer tests, current meter recovery and underway instrumentation. Data analysis commenced on board and a draft paper on the results of the budget calculations has been prepared. On this occasion achieved heat budget closure to the desired level of 10 W/m2.

FR 08/96 (mnf:FR199608_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/96 was undertaken to measure the flow of bottom, deep and intermediate waters into the West Australian Basin of the Indian Ocean. Nine out of ten current meters were recovered between Cape Mentelle and Broken Plateau. Survey methods included ADCP, CTDs, XBTs and underway instrumentation. Preliminary analyses indicate a general northward flow on the western part of the section and a general southward return flow on the eastern part of the section. Data and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 09/96 (mnf:FR199609_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/96 was undertaken to study hydrocarbons in the region of Exmouth Gulf, shelf, slope and Exmouth Plateau. Survey methods included grab and core sampling, sediment trap and current meter arrays, SeaStar rigs, primary production profiles, large volume water sampling, ADCP, CTDs and underway instrumentation. Surface sediment sampling for microbiological experiments were also conducted. Data, sediment and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Moorings previously deployed in June 96 from AIMS ships were retrieved, serviced and redeployed successfully with the exception of the Scott Reef mooring.

FR 10/96 (mnf:FR199610_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/96 (also known as PACMANUS III) was undertaken to survey the Manus and Woodlark Basins, in the Bismarck and Solomon Seas, PNG for hydrothermal ore-forming activity. Survey methods included dredges, grabs, sediment cores, hydrocasts and tow-yos, camera-video tows, echo-sounder traverses and underway instrumentation. Other areas also surveyed with no indication of hydrothermal activity included Goodenough Bay basement fault zone, East Sherburne Neovolcanic zone, Willaumez extensional transform zone, Bugave Ridge, and Tavui Caldera. Data and samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruises are FR 08/91, FR 05/93 and FR 09/97.

1997 (1997)

FR 01/97 (mnf:FR199701_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/97 was undertaken to study water chemistry and sediment mineralogy off the Great Barrier Reef, plus microfossils and fossil pollen. Cruise objectives included to search for geochemical signals for shallow water sediment dissolution off the GBR; gravity core for Paleoceanographic research and sedimentary response to changing carbonate saturation state of the sea water with depth and to core the GBR lagoon off the Whitsundays where geophysical modelling of the post-glacial sea level rise predicts lacustrine sediment deposition (a paleo-lake about 11,000 bp). Survey methods included CTDs, grabs, gravity cores and underway instrumentation. Adequate core and water samples were obtained to achieve objectives.

FR 02/97 (mnf:FR199702_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/97 (cruise 1 of 4) was undertaken for the first summer ichthyoplankton survey including correlation with physical and chemical oceanographic features. Data obtained on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of fish eggs and larvae during summer cruises will be compared to that obtained in winter cruises and the data used to locate spawning areas of commercially important fish species. The area sampled comprised the Victorian coast and part of eastern South Australia from Gabo Island to Port MacDonnell, south to 32 nautical miles offshore. Survey methods included CTDs, EZ/bongo net tows and underway instrumentation. Data, ichthyoplankton, neuston and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Bird observations were also conducted. Thirty seven bird species of seven families and some marine mammals were recorded. Related cruises are FR 11/97, FR 07/98 & FR 09/98.

FR 03/97 (mnf:FR199703_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/97 (cruise 1 in a series of 2) was undertaken to study the coastal, shelf and slope currents off Tasmania and also to collect zooplankton (primarily lobster larvae) and to relate the catches to the physical data. Eight transects (Southeast Cape, Port Davey, Cape Sorrel, Marawah, St Helens, Schouten Island, Cape Pillar and Bruny Island) were conducted from nearshore to the 2000 m isobath. Survey methods included ADCPs, grabs and underway instrumentation. Water, sediment (for the Tasmanian Department of Environment and Land Management) and biological samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Also conducted the installation of two moorings at the 100 and 200 m isobaths southwest from Macquarie Harbour (the moorings lie on a ground track for the Topex/Poseidon satellite) and 'Aquashuttle' tests. Related cruise FR 10/97.

FR 04/97 (mnf:FR199704_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/97 (cruise 1 in a series of 4 for TROPICS97 - Tropical River-Ocean Processes in Coastal Settings) was undertaken to study the effects that strongly flowing, tropical rivers with heavy loads of sediments and nutrients have on the coastal waters and seafloor and, further downstream, on the food chains of the ocean basins that they feed in to. The study areas are - the Sepik River plume that feeds out over the deep waters of the continental slope of northern Papua New Guinea and the Fly River plume that feeds onto a broad continental shelf in the Gulf of Papua. Survey methods included ADCPs, CTDs, sediment trap/mooring deployments, drifters, Aquashuttle, grasshopper, Gafanoto (platform includes a CTD, optical backscatterance sensor, pumps and sample bags) and underway instrumentation. Water and sediment samples were collected for on board and laboratory analysis. During daylight hours bird observations were recorded every 10 mins including depth, salinity and temperature in the Coral Sea/Gulf of Papua, and near the coastal plume of the Sepik River. Related cruises are FR 05/97, FR 06/97 and FR 07/97.

FR 05/97 (mnf:FR199705_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 05/97 (cruise 2 in a series of 4 for TROPICS97 - Tropical River-Ocean Processes in Coastal Settings) was undertaken to collect sediment samples and to survey the continental shelf, slope and rise between Manam Island and Wewak on the north coast of PNG in the Bismarck Sea and the Gulf of Papua. Survey methods included cores, grabs, seismic lines, sidescan sonar fish tows, CTD, and underway instrumentation. Data, water and sediment samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Sub-samples from grabs were collected for radio chemistry, bulk chemistry and grain size analysis. Two sediment trap arrays were also deployed and one recovered (previously deployed on cruise FR 04/97). Related cruises are FR 04/97, FR 06/97 and FR 07/97.

FR 06/97 (mnf:FR199706_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/97 (cruise 3 in a series of 4 for TROPICS97 -Tropical River-Ocean Processes in Coastal Settings) was undertaken to study the estaurine, inner and outer shelf zones of the Fly/Purari and Sepik Rivers outflow regions to determine the fate of riverine material entering the Gulf of Papua and the Bismarck Sea. Survey methods included ADCPs, CTDs, Megasucker deployments and underway instrumentation. Water samples were collected for both dissolved and particulate forms of nutrient elements, trace elements and organic matter for on board and laboratory analyses. Also conducted were productivity/grazing experiments and recovery of two sediment trap arrays. Related cruises are FR 04/97, FR 05/97 and FR 07/97.

FR 07/97 (mnf:FR199707_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/97 (cruise 4 in a series of 4 for TROPICS97 Tropical River-Ocean Processes in Coastal Settings) was undertaken to investigate the supply of nutrients, organics and trace metals to the equatorial region from the Sepik River. Survey methods included ADCP, CTDs (with additional instrumentation attached), Aquashuttle tows, and underway instrumentation. Water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruises are FR 04/97, FR 05/97 and FR 06/97.

FR 08/97 (mnf:FR199708_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 08/97 was undertaken to study the East Australian Current including electromagnetic induction by measuring magnetic signals of the seafloor, electric signals on the seafloor, magnetic signals at the sea-surface, and magnetic profiles vertically down through the ocean column. Survey methods included magnetometers, magnetic profiles, seafloor instrumentation, CTDs, XBTs and underway instrumentation. Also radiometer measurements and radiosonde launches were conducted to obtain surface truth and calibration data for later analysis with sea-suface temperatures obtained from the ATSR on ERS-2, and the AVHRR on NOAA-12 and 14.

FR 09/97 (mnf:FR199709_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/97 (also known as PACMANUS IV) was undertaken to further survey and sample hydrothermal ore-forming activity at the eastern Manus Basin (PACMANUS site), PNG and the following areas; New Britain Trench, Planet Deep, St George's Channel, Weitin Graben, Nimab, SuSu Knolls, Suzette, Tumbo, Umbo Knolls, Paul Ridge, Bougainville and Misima. Survey methods included CTDs, ADCPs, echo-sounder profiles, dredges, camera-video tows, cores, grabs, VUNL dips (simple vent fluid funnel) and underway instrumentation. Data, rocks, sediments and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Also conducted was a grab from a basin (off Misima Island) used for tailings disposal by Misima Mines: this will be a future reference in environmental studies. Related cruises are FR 08/91, FR 05/93, and FR 10/96.

FR 10/97 (mnf:FR199710_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 10/97 (cruise 2 in a series of 2) was undertaken to study the coastal, shelf and slope currents off Tasmania and to collect zooplankton (primarily lobster larvae and larval fish species) and to relate the catches to the physical data. Nine transects (St Helens, Schouten Island, Tasman Island, Bruny Island, Southeast Cape, Port Davey, Strahan, Marawah and King Island) were conducted from nearshore to the 2000 m isobath. Survey methods included ADCP, CTDs, XBTs, surface net tows and underway instrumentation. Data, water and biological samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Radiometer data was collected for ground-truthing the ocean colour satellite SeaWIFS and seabird observations/recordings were also conducted. Related cruise FR 03/97.

FR 11/97 (mnf:FR199711_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 11/97 (cruise 2 of 4) was undertaken for the second summer ichthyoplankton survey including correlation with physical and chemical oceanographic features. Data obtained on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of fish eggs and larvae during summer cruises will be compared to that obtained in winter cruises and the data used to locate spawning areas of commercially important fish species. The area sampled comprised the Victorian coast and part of eastern South Australia from Gabo Island to Port MacDonnell, south to 32 nautical miles offshore. Survey methods included ADCPs, CTDs, EZ/bongo net tows and underway instrumentation. Data, ichthyoplankton, neuston and water samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruises are FR 02/97, FR 07/98, & FR 09/98.

1998 (1998)

FR 01/98 (mnf:FR199801_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 01/98 was primarily undertaken to observe the dynamic topography off the Southern Shelf east of 135 degrees E. Stations occupied by FR 07/94 would be reoccupied to observe recent secular changes in water properties. Other cruise objectives included the parameterisation of the carbon system by high precision measurement of alkalinity and pH; sampling for pilchard larvae over three areas of continental shelf waters, Port MacDonnell, southern Kangaroo Island and Investigator Strait; large volume sampling using a submersible pump for particle composition studies in the area of a sediment trap mooring at 42 degrees S, 141 degrees E. and the determination of the spatial dynamics of surface phytoplankton communities alongtrack using fluorescence and nutrient data. Survey methods included ADCPs, CTDs, bongo/cal-vet plankton nets and underway instrumentation. Samples collected included eggs, larvae, phytoplankton, nutrients, oxygen, pH, alkalinity, salinity, DIC, 13C-DIC, pigments, POC/PON, and DOC for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 02/98 (mnf:FR199802_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 02/98 was undertaken for Subtropical Front temperature and transport studies (cruise 1 of 2). The aims of this first cruise of two (FR 10/98), being in the summer season is to: verify or refute the permanent existence and regional continuity of the Subtropical Front south of Australia; determine the seasonal variation in position and magnitude of the sea surface temperature gradient across the Subtropical Front south of Australia and in the Tasman Sea; estimate the velocity field and associated transport of the Subtropical Front; and determine the continuity of transport from the east Indian Ocean to the Tasman Sea. Survey methods included thermosalingraph and ADCP transect from Gulf St. Vincent to 40 degrees S, 118 degrees E, SeaSoar transects across the Subtropical Front, each on average 300 km long, CTDs and underway instrumentation. Recovery of two shallow current meter moorings from the shelf off western Tasmania was also conducted.

FR 03/98 (mnf:FR199803_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 03/98 was undertaken to study cool water carbonates in the eastern Great Australian Bight (Ceduna Terrace). Cruise objectives included to characterise the sedimentary facies present; analyse the sea-floor waters; document the nature of the morphology of the area, particularly the shelf margin; document the systematics of bryozoans, molluscs, foraminifers, corals, brachiopods, crustaceans and ostrocods present; document the distribution, food-source and other parameters governing the distribution of the king crab; determine environmental parameters controlling distribution and abundance of biota present and ascertain water current parameters across the shelf and down the slope margin. All objectives achieved to varying degrees. Survey methods included CTDs, pipe and epibenthic sled dredges, grabs, precision depth profiles, seafloor photography, real-time underwater video system, and underway instrumentation. Water, biota, rock, mud and sediment samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses.

FR 04/98 (mnf:FR199804_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/98 was undertaken for a geophysical survey of the continental and abyssal plain off the Eyre Peninsula (voyage 1 of 2). Natural variations of earth's electric and magnetic fields were measured over time scales of a few days to several weeks using seafloor magnetotelluric instruments, principal target being Eyre Peninsula. A new geophyscial instrument was developed to measure electric potentials (called self potentials, or SP) to detect the presence of mineralisation south of Eyre Peninsula, and to investigate SP signals across large magnetic anomalies in the Spencer Gulf. Sea-surface total-field magnetometers were used to investigate the effects of waves and swell, the variations of induction effects at the sea surface and the occurrence of a predicted magnetic amphidrome off the coast of South Australia. Underway data was also collected on this cruise.

FR 06/98 (mnf:FR199806_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 06/98 is the second cruise undertaken to conduct the geophysical survey of the continental and abyssal plain off the Eyre Peninsula. Eighteen seafloor magnetotelluric instruments were deployed on FR 04/98 and seventeen were recovered, the majority from the continental shelf, and others from the continental slope and abyssal plain. Instruments from the sites, all came back with significant amounts of sediment in pipes and housings. Sediments will be passed on to Adelaide University for consideration. The data return is above 90% and all instruments recorded at least a few days. Preliminary analyses of the data shows that the electrical conductivity anomaly that has been imaged on land extends out across the continental shelf towards the edge of the continental margin. We are confident of determining significant tectonic information from these data.

FR 07/98 (mnf:FR199807_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 07/98 (cruise 3 of 4) was undertaken for the first winter ichthyoplankton survey including correlation with physical and chemical oceanographic features. Area sampled comprised the Victorian coast between Gabo Island and Portland, south to 32 nautical miles offshore. Survey methods included CTDs, EZ and bongo net tows. Water samples for nutrient analysis, sigma-t, temperature, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and ichtyoplankton samples were collected for on board and laboratory analyses. Related cruises are FR 02/97 & FR 09/98.

FR 09/98 (mnf:FR199809_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 09/98 (cruise 4 of 4) was undertaken for the second winter ichthyoplankton survey including correlation with physical and chemical oceanographic features. Area sampled comprised the Victorian and South Australian coasts between Gabo Island and Port MacDonnell, south to 32 nautical miles offshore. Survey methods included CTDs, EZ and bongo net tows. Water samples for nutrient analysis, sigma-t, temperature, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and ichthyoplankton samples were collected for on board and laboratory analysis. Related cruises are FR 02/97 & FR 07/98.

FR 10/98 (mnf:FR199810_VOYAGE)

Franklin voyage FR 10/98 was the second of two research cruises to study seasonal variability of the position and intensity of the Subtropical Front south of Australia, in the region of the Great Australian Bight and the west and south coasts of Tasmania. Voyage objectives included to study the persistence and regional continuity of the Front, to determine the associated seasonal variation in temperature gradient, velocity field, transport across it, and to determine the continuity of transport from the eastern Indian Ocean to the Tasman Sea. The previous related cruise was voyage FR 02/98.

FR 11/98 (mnf:FR199811_VOYAGE)

Franklin cruise FR 11/98 was undertaken to study the sedimentary geology of the Australian continental margin off the Gippsland Basin, in south-eastern Victoria. This region is of interest because it contains non-tropical marine limestones as well as other sedimentary rock types formed over the past 30 million years. Cruise objectives included to obtain sediment and seismic transects across the shelf; to obtain sediment, bottom photographs and seismic data from three submarine canyon heads and from the slope and proximal basin floor regions; and to obtain rock samples from strata outcropping on the sides of canyons. The results of geophysical, sedimentological and micropaleontological analyses will be used to develop a sedimentological and environmental framework for the modern sediments of the shelf, slope and proximal basins, to correlate the analogous modern sedimentary regime of the offshore Gippsland Basin with that of the Tertiary Seaspray Group, and to assess the rate of propagation and origin of submarine canyon / channel development in slope sediments.

FR 12/98 (mnf:FR199812_VOYAGE)

Franklin cruise FR 12/98 was undertaken to study reef sedimentation and erosional development of volcanic islands at the southernmost latitudinal limit to reef growth in the south-west Pacific Ocean. Sampling was centred on two areas, Lord Howe Island and Middleton Reef. Sea-floor sedimment samples were collected by grab and piston cores. Seismic data were also collected and coral growth studied at Middleton Reef. Further sampling was carried out at Ball's Pyramid adjacent to Lord Howe Island. Bathymetric and current velocity data were collected throughout the voyage to provide geomorphological information and to relate to sediment distribution.

FR 14/98 (mnf:FR199814_VOYAGE)

Studies of continental shelf processes, including zooplankton biomass and particle size structure in the coastal zone (up to 100m depth) See Cruise Plan for more details, 6pp.

FR 15/98 (mnf:FR199815_VOYAGE)

Cainozoic marine stratigraphy and sedimentology of the central northern NSW and southern Queensland continental margin. For more details see the Voyage Plan (see link above).

1999 (1999)

FR 01/99 (mnf:FR199901_VOYAGE)

Studies of continental shelf processes, including zooplankton biomass and particle size structure in the coastal zone (up to 100m depth)

FR 02/99 (mnf:FR199902_VOYAGE)

Occupy the Brisbane-Fiji section as part of the long-term monitoring of the Tasman-Coral Sea Mass and Heat Transport. Asses our ability to monitor ocean fronts and quantify heat transport using in-situ and satellite data.

FR 03/99 (mnf:FR199903_VOYAGE)

RV Franklin voyage FR199903 was conducted in April / May 1999 by Dr. Alexandra Isern (university of Sydney) and Dr. Flavio Anselmetti (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) to investigate the facies architecture and depositional history of the sediments and carbonate platforms of the Marion Plateau, northeast Australia using a detailed grid of multi-channel seismic data collected over the plateau.

FR 04/99 (mnf:FR199904_VOYAGE)

Cruise FR 04/99 will steam from Darwin to the Yampi Shelf hydrocarbon seeps where some bottom samples will be taken for the Australian Geographical Survey Organisation (AGSO), then steam to the start the main task, about 20 transects in an area between 15-20 deg S and 115-122 deg E in waters off the coast from Broome to Dampier. The AGSO work will follow parts of the Yampi Tertiary Tie (YTT) seismic lines 8,9,10, acquire sediment samples to investigate benthic communities around hydrocarbon seeps. Also water samples, still and video images, high resolution shallow seismic profiles, and sea floor mapping data will be acquired. The major task is to investigate the Extension of cool-water carbonate facies into deeper waters in Australia's tropical North-West Shelf area : oceanographic, sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical history. Data collected will include Precision Depth Profiling, bottom sediment and biota samples, bottom water samples and CTD profiles, colour photography of the sea floor on camera and video stations and seismic lines. Equipment includes epibenthic sled, Bleys dredges, Box corer, underwater camera, underwater real-time video system, seismic equipment and side scan sonar. This cruise was inspired by the investigations on cruise FR 01/96.

FR 05/99 (mnf:FR199905_VOYAGE)

There will be 8 moorings deployed to collect data to investigate Tidal mixing and the seasonal cycle of the Leeuwin Current. Objectives include to estimate temperatures and currents (both directly and via geostrophy) with a view to (a) testing the closure of mass and heat budgets; (b) documenting the "Rochford Current", examine the probable role of tidal mixing in forming the 50-100m deep internal mixed layers observed in XBT traces near the continental shelf edge, off Darwin; in converting cool inflow to warmer outflow; in removing SST minima contrasts during the summer upwelling regime; and in surveying the predicted regions of intense internal tides.

FR 06/99 (mnf:FR199906_VOYAGE)

Joint Air-Sea Monsoon Investigation in the Bay of Bengal (JASMINE II). This cruise follows one conducted in May 1999, using the US vessel R/V Ron Brown. The aim of the cruises is to provide information of relevance to a number of questions regarding air-sea interaction in the eastern Indian Ocean, such as: i) Is air-sea interaction an essential part of the "Intraseasonal Oscillation" events which control the net strength of the monsoon in a given year? ii) Large currents occur in this region: does this imply that advection is a major part of the heat and freshwater balance? iii) Can we close heat and freshwater budgets on the timescale of days, over a region a few kilometres wide? Instruments used include: Radar recorder; Radiosondes; CTD sith 12 bottle rosette; ADCP; Eppley pyranometer; Eppley pyrogeometer; RM Young raingauge; Vaisala balloon launcher; Meterological balloons; Thermosalinograph; XCTD software; probes.

FR 07/99 (mnf:FR199907_VOYAGE)

1. Acoustic Thermometry of the Indian Ocean The long-term objective of the project is to measure climate scale temperature change in the Indian Ocean. This involves the following more immediate objectives, all aimed at preparing for a future installation of an acoustic source on the seabed. Map the sound speed structure to find the axial depth of the SOFAR channel in the vicinity of Cocos Is. Conduct a detailed bathymetric survey of the acoustic source site. Conduct a detailed bathymetric survey of the proposed cable route to shore

FR 08/99 (mnf:FR199908_VOYAGE)

The Carpentaria electrical conductivity anomaly is a major geological shear zone extending over a thousand kilometres in an approximately north-south orientation in northern Queensland. It has been mapped on land by various geomagnetic and magnetotelluric arrays, but the relationship between the conductivity anomaly and major tectonic boundaries is not straightforward. The offshore extent of the anomaly is unknown and poorly constrained by land measurements around the Gulf. The scientific objectives are therefore to: 1. Map the location of the Carpentaria anomaly and examine its spatial relationship with the tectonic structures in the region. 2. To determine the depth and length of the anomaly into the Gulf, and hence better understand the causes of high electrical conductance within the crust. 3. To relate the electrical properties to the tectonic evolution of northern Australia.

2000 (2000)

FR 01/2000 (mnf:FR200001_VOYAGE)

TROPICS 2000: A continuing investigation on the supply of nutrients, organics and trace metals to the equatorial region from the Sepik River and their influence on coastal and oceanic primary production. 10 stations were occupied to provide information on water properties of the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCU) and the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) as influenced by the Sepik River. Samples taken included nutrients, salinity, oxygen, 14C productivity, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, flow cytometry, and trace metals. More details are given in the voyage report.

FR 02/2000 (mnf:FR200002_VOYAGE)

This voyage aims to collect data for the TROPICS project for the south coast PNG Gulf of Papua rivers, where nearly all large river inputs are trapped in the mangroves and inner shelf. Collaborators are trying to measure all the components of a mass balance for river inputs, losses to the atmosphere and sedimentation, and export to oceanic circulation. Other aims will be mapping Holocene sediment thickness with high resolution seismic equipment, Kasten Coring and box coring sediments to estimate accumulation rate and sediment mixing depth, Kasten and box coring to obtain benthic biological samples, and for measurements of organic matter decomposition reactionsand, measuring the natural isotopes of radium in large volume samples of surface water to estimate the residence time of shelf water, and obtaining grab samples and Kasten Cores for geochemical mass balance research on trace elements and the biological elements in the Gulf of Papua.

FR 03/2000 (mnf:FR200003_VOYAGE)

The principal aim is to collect samples from actively-forming seafloor hydrothermal deposits in the eastern Manus Basin, PNG, from which microbes will be extracted and cultured for use in a new CSIRO multidivisional research initiative "Biological Applications in Mining and Mineral Processing. A second objective is to deploy and test several deep-submergence geophysical sensors being developed in CSIRO to facilitate future seafloor mineral exploration and mining. Finally, geological investigations arising from results of the PACMANUS cruises (1991-97) will be conducted, including surveys of two sites where there are strong indications of as-yet undiscovered hydrothermal fields; a repeat survey of the exceptionally intense SuSu Knolls hydrothermal plume to delineate changes since 1993-1997 measurements; frther collections of diffusely vented fluids using the VUNL (constructed for FR-09/97) at the Snowcap, North Su and South Su sites; photography of proposed ODP drill sites; and CTD -transmissometer surveys to test for possible hydrothermal activity near faults within sediment-filled grabens in St Georges Channel

FR 04/2000 (mnf:FR200004_VOYAGE)

Investigation of Hydrothermally Active Submarine Island Arc Volcanoes in the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni Island and Solomon Island Chains.

FR 05/2000 (mnf:FR200005_VOYAGE)

Seismic structure and sedimentary setting of coral reef systems of the Northwest Shelf, Rowley Shoals, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs: implications for global sea level and climate during the Quaternary.

FR 06/2000 (mnf:FR200006_VOYAGE)

Determine crust-mantle structure and anisotropy across the continental margin, from Archaean shield to ocean abyssal plain; Investigate the Canning Basin conductivity anomaly across the margin and its relationship to extensional faults imaged from deep-seismic profiles of the Fitzroy Trough. A total of sixteen seafloor MT instruments will be deployed in two arrays.

FR 07/2000 (mnf:FR200007_VOYAGE)

To recover nine moorings deployed in July 1999. These should have data on currents and temperatures, from which we should be able to analyse the amount of heat exported out of the region by tidal mixing over a year; indications of the relative roles of tidal mixing and wind-driven upwelling; and relate longshore currents in this region to the better-known Leeuwin Current system, further southwest. In addition we will undertake CTD stations opposite each mooring, mostly to calibrate the temperature and salinity recorders on the moorings. As time permits, we will undertake further CTDs to explore flow and hydrographic features in the Arafura Sea.

FR 08/2000 (mnf:FR200008_VOYAGE)

Determine crust-mantle structure and anisotropy across the continental margin, from Archaean shield to ocean abyssal plain; Investigate the Canning Basin conductivity anomaly across the margin and its relationship to extensional faults imaged from deep-seismic profiles of the Fitzroy Trough. Up to twelve seafloor MT instrument (squares in Figure 1) will be recovered from the seafloor deployments sites established from the first leg of the cruise in August (FR 06/2000).

FR 09/2000 (mnf:FR200009_VOYAGE)

To re-occupy portions of several World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) hydrographic lines between Australia and 90? E in the Southeast Indian Ocean as part of establishing a Deep Ocean Time Series Section grid around Australia.Full-depth 24 bottle 10L Niskin/CTD casts will be taken at WOCE spatial resolution. Sampling and chemical analysis will be completed for oxygen, nutrients, dissolved carbon and alkalinity.

FR 10/2000 (mnf:FR200010_VOYAGE)

To use RV Franklin together with satellite data and other instrumentation to investigate: (a) the summer circulation patterns and biological productivity along the continental shelf between Shark Bay and North-West Cape; (b) interaction between the northward coastal current and the southward Leeuwin Current at the coastal promontory at Point Cloates; (c) processes controlling the exchange of water between Shark Bay and the continental shelf including the fate of high salinity outflow from Shark Bay.

2001 (2001)

FR 01/2001 (mnf:FR200101_VOYAGE)

Test (by exploration) the hypothesis that hydrothermal "warm seeps", venting basin brines or fluids rising up faults from basement, exist along the edge of the Great Australian Bight.

FR 02/2001 (mnf:FR200102_VOYAGE)

During research voyage FR02/2001 R/V Franklin will use its SeaSoar in a study of small scale mixing processes in the Subtropical Front south of Australia. There are four principal objectives: 1.To determine the relationship between thermohaline structures and density compensation in the Subtropical Front. 2.To determine the influence of density compensation on vertical mixing. 3.To determine the influence of changing surface wind stress on horizontal advection and vertical mixing. 4.To determine the temporal scales of interleaving events in the Subtropical Front.

FR 03/2001 (mnf:FR200103_VOYAGE)

The aim of the study is to increase our knowledge of what happened to the region geologically over the last 100 million years, with special emphasis on sedimentation and oceanographic changes during 1) Cretaceous rifting, and 2) Gondwanan drifting apart in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic. The four major activities are designed to fill important gaps in the geoscience knowledge of southeastern Australia by: a) helping to characterise the pre-breakup Late Jurassic and Cretaceous strata (160-65 million years ago) off eastern Tasmania (Exon and Hill); b) documenting the sedimentary history of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary continental breakup (95-45 m.y. ago) in deep water off eastern Tasmania and in the Otway Basin (Exon and Hill); c) elucidating the changes through time in carbonate deposition in the eastern Otway Basin from Oligocene times to the present day (Gallagher); and d) studying Late Quaternary palaeo-environments off eastern Tasmania and in the Bass Basin (last 500,000 years) (Keene, Howard, Harris).

FR 04/2001 (mnf:FR200104_VOYAGE)

This cruise is the first component of a multi-cruise experiment to enclose the Coral-Tasman Sea. The two following cruises (FR05/2001 & FR06/2001) and a section east of New Zealand to be performed by colleagues at NIWA will complete the box around the region. We note that FR04/2001 also involves a high degree of collaboration between CMR and colleagues from NIWA. Cruise Objectives: To occupy the PX34 section (Sydney-Wellington) as part of the long-term monitoring of the mass and heat transport in the Tasman Sea. To "value add" to the 10 years of high density XBT data (1991-2001) collected along this route from merchant vessels.

FR 05/2001 (mnf:FR200105_VOYAGE)

This voyage consisted of two legs. Leg 1 from Wellington to Tonga and Leg 2 from Tonga to Apia. These voyages aquired data on the structure and carbon storage of the oceans around Australia to test climate model predictions relating to the Greenhouse Effect and/or natural decadal variability. Data collected included standard full depth CTD and Niskin bottle casts anaylised to WOCE standard including dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations (DIC), alkalinity, carbon isotope analyses. In collaboration with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratories and the University of Washington, concentrations of freons were measured. These are an important indicator of ventilation rates and are particularly useful for testing ocean circulation models.

FR 06/2001 (mnf:FR200106_VOYAGE)

Tasman-Coral Sea mass and heat transport / Regional Ocean Observing Network design - Part 2. This cruise is the final component of a multi-cruise experiment undertaking many CTD stations to enclose the Coral-Tasman Sea. The two previous cruises FR04/2001, FR05/2001 and a section east of New Zealand to be performed by colleagues at NIWA complete the box around the region.

FR 07/2001 (mnf:FR200107_VOYAGE)

The palaeoclimatic history of the New Caledonia region - closing the gap between the deep-sea and the coral records by obtaining and analysing sediment cores from the ocean floor in waters south of Noumea.

FR 08/2001 (mnf:FR200108_VOYAGE)

This voyage is to study seafloor and sub-seafloor hydrothermal ore-forming activity in order to develop improved methods of exploring for ancient mineral deposits on land that originally formed by similar processes. From Noumea, around the southern end of New Caledonia and then NE towards Anatom Islandwhere submarine activity is recorded on published nautical charts. From there NNW with local zig-zags in the East Coriolis Seamount Chain, Fortuna, Erromango and Vate Basins and then to near Epi Island to investigate the Kuwae caldera before departing for Brisbane.

FR 09/2001 (mnf:FR200109_VOYAGE)

Geophysics, geochemistry and sedimentology associated with an inferred large gas hydrate deposit, eastern Lord Howe Rise, Tasman Sea (FAUST 3). Seismic mapping of basin sequences, sediment diapirs and bottom simulating reflectors within the Australian and New Caledonian/French seabed jurisdictions; Core to help determine the origin and composition of gas on the Lord Howe Rise, especially in any identified seafloor structures above sediment diapirs; Ground-truth seismic data by sampling older outcropping sequences; Core to establish the composition, character and climate history of shallow sediment of Holocene and Pleistocene age.

2002 (2002)

FR 01/2002 (mnf:FR200201_VOYAGE)

A zone of high tidal current energy across the northern margin of the Great Barrier Reef is hypothesised to be a cross-shelf corridor of sediment movement. It is proposed to conduct high resolution seabed mapping, seabed sampling and photography to identify mobile bed sediments and depositions. Key goals are to collect sufficient data to verify whether such cross-shelf transport is occurring, document benthic biological communities, collect sediment cores to extract a time series of cross-shelf terrigenous flux.

FR 02/2002 (mnf:FR200202_VOYAGE)

General aims are to study modern seafloor hydrothermal ore-forming activity in order to develop improved methods of exploring for ancient mineral deposits on land that originally formed by similar processes. This voyage concerns Variability related to subduction style of submarine hydrothermal and volcanic activity in the Western Bismarck Island Arc, Papua New Guinea. Specific aims are to locate, study and sample submarine volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems in the Western Bismarck Island Arc of Papua New Guinea, in particular at sites having highly potassic characteristics and where summit calderas occur. Methods include Identification of targets using available bathymetric, geophysics (seismicity, satellite gravity and magnetic intensity in particular); Echosounder profiling; Dredging; CTD-transmissometer tow-yos; Niskin bottle sampling; Bottom-tow video camera; Sediment coring and grabbing (Smith-McIntyre).

FR 03/2002 (mnf:FR200203_VOYAGE)

Investigate Submarine hydrothermal activity and volcanic petrogenesis associated with the birth of island arcs in the Solomon Islands.

FR 04/2002 (mnf:FR200204_VOYAGE)

Advantage was taken of this TRANSIT from Sydney to Hobart to a) Test newly developed XBT interface electronics and software b) Do inter-comparison between different XBT systems and CTD in a variety of locations selected to give a wide range of temperature profiles. c) To test a new carbon dioxide sensor for use on research vessels.

2015 (2015)

RV Investigator Voyage in2015_c01 (mnf:IN2015_C01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator Research Charter Voyage in2015_c01. GAB deep water geological and benthic ecology program. Scientific objectives: The Great Australian Bight (GAB) represents one of Australia’s most prospective frontier hydrocarbon exploration regions. However, the primary Ceduna sedimentary sub-basin – the focus of our work - is characterised by a paucity of data on its deep water geology and almost no knowledge of its benthic biological communities. The Ceduna sub-basin is the product of rifting followed by the subsequent Southern Ocean seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica. The rifting created a narrow seaway between Australia and Antarctica, which was initially filled by two large deltaic super sequences (represented by the Tiger and Hammerhead super sequences respectively). Decreased sediment supply followed this period, during which commencement of fast seafloor spreading led to the initiation of widespread igneous activity and the development of a large number of volcanoes across the basin. Subsequent low sedimentation rates combined with continued subsidence have created the current modern deep water Ceduna sub-basin geomorphology. Key knowledge gaps in the understanding of the fundamental geology of the Ceduna sub-basin include: 1. Sedimentary facies and source rocks. 2. Hydrocarbon seeps. 3. Mid-Eocene Volcanic activity. 4. Basin and benthic biodiversity and distribution. The voyage objectives are built around three main survey targets: • Outcrops of sedimentary rocks – to collect samples for sedimentary facies and source rock analysis • Potential areas of seepage – to determine if hydrocarbon seepage can be identified • Deepwater seamounts – to identify, sample and investigate the nature of the mid-Eocene volcanics. Extracts from in2015_c01 voyage plan.

RVIN - 2015 Charter 02 (mnf:IN2015_C02_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator Research Charter Voyage in2015_c02. Great Australian Bight (GAB) Deep water pelagic and benthic ecosystem study. Scientific Objectives: This voyage will characterise deep-water pelagic and benthic community structure and identify key ecological processes in the central and eastern GAB, and forms part of the GAB Research Program that aims to describe the key elements of the GAB marine ecosystem. This understanding of the structure and function of the ecosystem will be used to inform future integrated and sustainable ocean management and assessment/mitigation of potential future impacts. An overarching objective of the voyage is to contribute to developing models of ecosystem-level structure and function for the GAB The pelagic ecosystem structure in the eastern GAB, which is characterised by seasonal upwelling and a narrower continental slope, will be compared with the poorly sampled central GAB, where year-round downwelling is predicted and the shelf and slope are wider with the following GAB Research Program objectives; 1.Compare the eastern and central GAB continental margin zooplankton and micronekton communities in terms of their species composition, size range, biomass, nutrient source/trophic pathways and habitat. 2.Testing the hypothesis that the “microbial food web” is the dominant planktonic food web over the deep GAB continental margin, particularly in the central GAB where year-round downwelling is thought to be the prevailing cross-margin flow, and that the more efficient “classic food web” only dominates in the eastern GAB during periods of nutrient-rich upwelling. 3.Describing the community structure, dynamics, biodiversity and endemism of microbes (i.e., viruses and bacteria), plankton (i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton, ichthyoplankton) and micronekton (including squids, small pelagic and mesopelagic fish and gelatinous organisms). Benthic characterisation is important because there are virtually no existing benthic biological data beyond continental shelf depths (<200 m); because conservation values attributed to Commonwealth Marine Reserves (CMR) spanning wide depth ranges are untested on the mid- and lower continental slope; and because oil and gas lease areas extend across the GAB Marine Park (GAB MP). Within the GAB Research Program, the Benthic Biodiversity project has the following objectives: 1.Quantify spatial patterns in the physical environment, and composition and abundance of benthic fauna in BP leases and adjacent continental slope areas of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) to provide baseline metrics relevant to monitoring the potential future impacts of oil and gas exploration on benthic communities. 2.Determine requirements (including identifying indicators and metrics), and identify suitable control sites, for future ecological monitoring in the GAB – especially to detect and quantify ecological impacts from oil and gas exploration on benthic communities of the GAB Marine Park. Extract from in2015_c02 voyage plan, please see plan for full details.

RVIN - 2015 Gear Trial Voyage 01 (mnf:IN2015_E01_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval RV Investigator cold water trial voyage IN2015_E01. Equipment testing including atmospherics. This is a trial voyage which took place from Hobart to Hobart from the 29th January to 21st February 2015. The overall objectives include: (1) Introduce key stakeholders and science teams to Investigator, MNF and ASP operations, (2) Safely undertake cold water and atmospheric operations and familiarise MNF staff and visiting science teams, (3) Develop and implement procedures and JHAs for scientific operations, (4) Identify any problems, issues and conflicts and include these in a voyage report, (5) Collect and process data and samples as for a research voyage to test laboratories, facilities and on board systems, (6) Undertake specific testing and checks of aerosol sampling mast, aerosol laboratory and air-chemistry laboratory, (7) Test vessel and systems under cold and ice-edge conditions, (8) Geophysical Survey Mapping and calibration of EM710 and EM122, (9) Data Acquisition and ship's network: TECHSAS, SDIV, VISAGE, (10) Communications: VSAT, FBB, Iridium, (11) Seagoing Instrumentation: Gravity, SST, and UWY water analysis.

RVIN - 2015 Transit 01 (mnf:IN2015_T01_VOYAGE)

MNF Investigator First Transit voyage for 2015, Voyage objectives are: Transit to Sydney in preparation for IN2015_V02 and Testing of any outstanding SFR issues. Overall activity plan including details for first 24 hours of voyage: (1) Opportunistic GSM work to occur throughout voyage. (2) Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) deployed in Storm Bay and recovered off Sydney. (3) Sydney pilot boarding ground. (4) Vessel scheduled to arrive at Sydney Heads.

RVIN - 2015 Transit 02 (mnf:IN2015_T02_VOYAGE)

Scientific objectives: Transit voyage to return the RV Investigator to Hobart. Voyage objectives: Deployment of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) for the length of the transit from outside the Port Jackson heads to Tasman Island (or near enough). Opportunistic GSM work to fill in missing data points along the voyage track.

RVIN - 2015 Voyage 01 (mnf:IN2015_V01_VOYAGE)

MNF RV Investigator Research Voyage IN2015_v01. IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series(SOTS) Automated Moorings for Climate and Carbon Cycle Studies Southwest Of Tasmania. Scientific objectives: The Southern Ocean has a predominant role in the movement of heat and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior moderating Earth's average surface climate. SOTS uses a set of three automated mooring to measure these processes under extreme conditions, where they are most intense and have been least studied. The atmosphere-ocean exchanges occur on many timescales, from daily insolation cycles to ocean basin decadal oscillations and thus high frequency observations sustained over many years are required. The current context of anthropogenic forcing of rapid climate change adds urgency to the work. Voyage objectives: The primary objective is to deploy a full set of SOTS moorings (SOFS, Pulse, and SAZ) and to obtain ancillary information of the oceanographic conditions at the time of deployment using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and deployment of autonomous profiling Bio-Argo floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: i) the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) focuses on air properties, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. ii) the Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focuses on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. iii) the SAZ sediment trap mooring focuses on quantifying the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and collecting samples to investigate their ecological controls. Additional water sampling and sensor comparisons against shipboard systems provide quality control and spatial context, which is further augmented by Bio-Argo float and Triaxus towed body deployments, and satellite remote sensing. Please read voyage plan for full description.

RVIN - 2015 Voyage 02 (mnf:IN2015_V02_VOYAGE)

Investigator Voyage IN2015_V02 Title: Sustained monitoring of the East Australian Current: Mass, heat and freshwater transports. Scientific objectives The East Australian Current (EAC) is a complex and highly energetic western boundary system in the south-western Pacific off eastern Australia. It provides both the western boundary of the South Pacific gyre and the linking element between the Pacific and Indian Ocean gyres. This voyage will deploy an array of full-depth current meter and property (CTD) moorings from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane (27o S). At this location the EAC, north of the high eddy variability, the EAC approaches its maximum strength and its flow is relatively uniform and coherent. The aim of this observing system is to capture the mean and time-varying flow of the EAC. This is a component of IMOS, and will provide an intensive reference set of measurements of the EAC flow over sustained period for monitoring EAC transport, improved understanding of relationship of EAC and the South Pacific gyre and impact of the coastal marine ecosystem, and validation and interpretation of the current system in numerous climate and ocean models. The mooring array is located on the existing long-term XBT transects, satellite altimetry and glider tracks. The EAC deep mooring array will be complemented by a Queensland- IMOS operated inshore mooring array on the continental shelf region. Voyage objectives This voyage will redeploy an array of six full-depth current meter and property (temperature, salinity and pressure) moorings from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane (26o S). The observing system is designed to capture the mean and time-varying flow of the EAC. In order to resolve interannual and decadal signals we aim to maintain a multi-year deployment of the array. The main aim of the voyage will be to deploy an array of (6) full-depth current meter/CTD moorings extending from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane. The following specific objectives will be performed: List of tasks 1. Carry out swath mapping from the abyssal plain to the base of the continental slope 2. Deploy each of the moorings at appropriate locations, including position triangulation of each mooring 3. Complete CTD/rosette stations at each mooring, with LADCP 4. Complete a number of Ship ADCP sections along the mooring line 5. Complete deep CTD and RBR sensor testing at a number of CTD stations 6. Complete XBT and CTD side-by-side comparisons at CTD stations

RVIN - 2015 Voyage 03 (mnf:IN2015_V03_VOYAGE)

Frontal eddies or “billows” are ubiquitous, small cyclonic eddies <100 km in diameter, and regularly characterise the continental side of all ocean boundary currents. They occur approximately weekly, and last up to 3 weeks which is sufficient for the early life history of fish. The physics and biology of these ubiquitous eddies are not understood. They are not resolved by present-day surface altimetry, but are evident along the East Australian Current (EAC) in SST or in real-time surface currents from the Coffs Harbour HF Radar (30.5°S). We will determine if uplift within the eddy nurtures plankton in comparison to the inner shelf water; and in comparison to similar eddies offshore around the EAC retroflection. We expect entrainment of adjacent shelf water is preconditioned to sustain larval fish, compared to entrainment of Tasman Sea water. We expect the condition and size distribution (survival) of larval fish will be greater in frontal eddies than in source water on the shelf or in the EAC. Frontal eddies may be a general mechanism for recruitment to coastal fisheries, such as for the Kuroshio Current, Gulf Stream, Agulhas Current. We will continue our long-term observations of phytoplankton, salps, krill, larval fish assemblages and eddy behaviour in this important region. We will investigate 2 to 3 frontal eddies on 2 separate occasions in the following possible locations: • the EAC separation zone south of North Stradbroke Island (27.6°S); or • south of Cape Byron (28.6°S); • south of Smoky Cape (30.9°S), • under the Coffs Harbour HF radar (30°S) • south of Seal Rocks/Sugarloaf Point (32.4°S) and off Port Stephens (32.7°S) or Sydney (34°S). Our scientific objectives are to: 1. Examine the entrainment shelf water and the amount of eddy uplift driven in relation to the strength of the adjacent EAC, coastal wind, the coastal counter-current, and slope canyons; and to quantify oceanographic behaviour of frontal eddies including their movement; 2. Compare the zooplankton size structure and the bioacoustic biomass between coastal waters, frontal eddies and the adjacent EAC or Tasman Sea; 3. Similarly compare the phytoplankton (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) biomass, diversity of pigments and other molecular markers and biogeochemical functions across coastal, EAC and frontal eddy water masses, 4. Similarly compare the zooplankton size structure and species diversity, the larval fish size distribution and the bioacoustic biomass; 5. The abundance, condition and genetic traits of other zooplankton (lobster phyllosoma).

2016 (2016)

RVIN - 2016 Gear Trials 01 (mnf:IN2016_E01_VOYAGE)

Scientific Objectives: 1) Dredge volcanic and sedimentary rocks to obtain new, rigorous age and paleo-depth constraints for the Cascade Seamount. Underway bathymetric data will be used to refine dredge targets. 2) Collect sediment cores across a depth transect to enable work investigating paleo-oceanographic conditions using proxies. Preferably at least a multicore proximal to IODP site 1172, and piston cores at the mid- and shallow-depth sites. 3) Collect high resolution swath bathymetry and sub-bottom profile data to see how far recent sediment flows extend from the Cascade Seamount towards IODP site 1172, to test the hypothesis that downslope transport resulted in the observed sediment patterns in core 1172. Existing coverage and resolution of bathymetry across the East Tasman Plateau is insufficient to resolve this question. 4) CTD to complement the sediment core data if possible. Alternative is for clean underway surface supply samples to be taken where CTD not possible.

RVIN - 2016 Gear Trials 02 (mnf:IN2016_E02_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_e02, titled “MNF Equipment Sea Trials.” The Primary objective of IN2016_E02 is to complete the sea trial regime as follows: • Demonstrate trawling equipment functions correctly, provide ASP crew training / exposure to trawling and confirm suitable manning levels for future trawling voyages, including emptying of scientific samples from a laden net; • Collect trawling data for analysis; • Deep towed camera system testing; • Demonstrate functionality of other equipment modified / upgraded / installed / maintained during the Sydney dry dock period; • Complete the installation of the UHDAS (ADCP) computer, and use the transit and trawling time for calibration, testing, and assessment and training on the new UHDAS software installation; • Transport the Investigator from Sydney to Hobart; • Deep water calibration of DECAF (Kloser charter).

RVIN - 2016 Transit 01 (mnf:IN2016_T01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_t01. Titled "Continuity of Australian terranes into Zealandia: towards a geological map of the east Gondwana margin." This is an extract from the Voyage Objectives in the Voyage Plan. We plan 4-6 dredges on the Fairway Ridge and Sandy Island area. The specific locations of potential dredge sites are shown on the voyage plan image and are tied to a confidential seismic reflection profile and/or swath bathymetry data. As we have access to high-resolution swath data from the area from the Geological Survey of New Caledonia, there is no necessity to plan a detailed swath survey for each dredge site. Swath bathymetry and ocean-bottom profiles (continuous collection) We will continuously collect bathymetric data and the North Loyalty Basin will be crossed during the transit voyage, thus requiring no additional time to collect this important swath profile. Gravity (continuous collection) We will continuously collect gravity data. There is no deviation necessary to obtain gravity measurements over the northwestern part of the Fairway Ridge as we will be crossing this area as part of the dredging component of the survey. CTD, hydrocast and bio-optical cast We will take two daily CTD profiles and hydrocast water samples to 500m to characterise the water at time of deployment for pigment, nutrient, dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity concentrations (up to 25 stations over the whole voyage). For this we will require the 36-bottle CTD rosette. Additional sensors to be included on the CTD frame include chlorophyll and CDOM fluorometers, absorption and backscattering meter, beam transmissometer, dissolved oxygen, deep SUNA and SeaFET pH. A Satlantic radiometer will be deployed separately at each station to a depth of 200m. We will be able to provide sensors that are not available through the MNF equipment pool (i.e. Satlantic SeaFET pH, Satlantic radiometer, Wetlabs acs and bb9, Hobilabs Hydroscat-6). Water samples will be filtered or chemically fixed on board according to standard operating procedures. We anticipate each deployment station taking 1.5 hours, with deployments taking place at the same time each morning and afternoon (nominally 0930 and 1400 hours), when not conflicting with dredge operations. Robotic Profiling Floats and bio-optics CSIRO will provide floats equipped with CTD and bio-optical sensors to measure a range of parameters: T, S, dissolved oxygen, chl and CDOM fluorescence, backscattering (4 wavelengths), beam attenuation, upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance (4 wavelengths). Floats will be deployed at stations within Australian waters along the ship’s route of transit (estimate 155E and 160E). Deployment of the floats can be undertaken from the A-frame off the rear deck or by two people using a rope and manhandling the float over the stern. Once deployed, the floats will descend to depth and start their pre-programmed cycle of profiling and data collection, with data transmitted via Iridium satellites. During each deployment we will also take a CTD profile and water samples to 1000m to characterise the water at time of deployment for pigment, nutrient, dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity concentrations. Additional sensors to be included on the CTD include chlorophyll and CDOM fluorometers, backscattering meter and/or beam transmissometer, dissolved oxygen, deep SUNA and possibly SeaFET pH. We will seek to provide sensors that are not available through the MNF equipment pool (e.g. pH). Water samples will be filtered or chemically fixed on board according to standard operating procedures. We anticipate each deployment station taking 2-4 hours. Additional CTD and bio-optical casts will be taken twice per day (morning and afternoon, nominally 9.30am and 2pm) for bio-optical and biogeochemical sampling around the time of satellite overpasses. Full details available in the Voyage Plan.

RVIN - 2016 Transit 02 (mnf:IN2016_T02_VOYAGE)

Voyage objectives The main objective of this transit voyage is to move the vessel from Hobart to Sydney prior to IN2016_V04. The objectives listed below are complementary with the transit. 1. Natural iron fertilisation of the oceans around Australia: linking terrestrial dust and bushfires to marine biogeochemistry Oceans play a vital role in Earth's climate through the control of atmospheric CO2. An important component of this system is the iron cycle, in which iron-rich aerosols are transported from land via atmosphere to ocean. Iron is a key micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, the scarcity of which controls essential biogeochemical processes. This project will facilitate an integrated ship-based atmospheric observational program for trace elements in oceans around Australia. During the voyages, we will sample and conduct experiments on atmospheric particles containing terrestrial dust, bushfire smoke and anthropogenic emissions that are transported from Australia to its surrounding oceans. This will provide the critical information on atmospheric iron supply for ocean fertility and health, providing the science for predicting a key factor in the future impact of the oceans on climate. The project supports the training and research of two postgraduate PhD students from IMAS-UTAS. 2. We will also opportunistically collect event-based clean rainwater samples using either a polyethylene funnel and collection bottle (when conditions allow) or a Dual Chimney Precipitation Sampler (N-Con Systems model 00-127; currently on order), to quantify the trace metal deposition in the 'bulk' and 'precipitate-only' fractions. Ideally samples would be collected on upper and forward decks, either above the bridge or at the bow when heading into the wind.

RVIN - 2016 Transit 03 (mnf:IN2016_T03_VOYAGE)

Dry dock activities at Garden Island. The Primary objective of IN2016_T03 is to transit the Investigator to Sydney for dry dock activities & deploy 1 x Argo float. During the transit the following activities will be ongoing (1) Multibeam maintenance - 1 x Konsberg technician on board; (2) CTD Shaft removal preparations - 1 x Rapp technician on board. (3) One Argo Float will be deployed during transit from Brisbane to Sydney The following list details the key activities planned for 2016_T03 (Refer to section 4.2 for a detailed activity schedule): * Confirm all demobilization work is complete whilst alongside in Brisbane; * Confirm wires have been spooled off from the 2 x CTD winches, and spooling equipment is loaded onboard; * Depart Port of Brisbane with pilot on board; * Clear port limits and disembark pilot; * Transit to Argo deployment location & deploy 1 x Argo float; * Transit to Garden Island.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 01 (mnf:IN2016_V01_VOYAGE)

HEOBI Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions RV Investigator voyage IN2016_v01. Voyage objectives: [1] Seafloor and subseafloor mapping/geophysical characterisation. Continuous mapping will be carried out using the multibeam systems, multi-frequency split-beam echosounders, sub-bottom profiler, gravimeter, and (on long transits between ports and the study area) magnetometer to characterise bathymetric features and identify those most likely to include volcanic or hydrothermal activity. XBT or CTD data will be acquired at standard intervals for sound velocity corrections to the multibeam data. The data will be initially processed at sea to inform site selection for volcanic and hydrothermal sampling. [2] Nature of submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal systems. We will characterise the spatial distribution, morphology, and geology of active submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal systems. [Extract only] [3] Detecting hydrothermal inputs to the ocean, and vertical water movements that deliver them to surface waters. …full-depth CTD/LADCP/TMR transects will be performed to capture cross-shore gradients in water. [Extract only] [4] Detecting impacts on surface phytoplankton production. During the underway mapping we will continuously operate sensors to measure biological activity (fluorescence for phytoplankton abundance, fast-repetition-rate fluorescence for phytoplankton photosynthetic competence, transmission for total carbon biomass, and O2/Ar ratio mass spectrometry for net community production). The sensors will be augmented by underway sampling for phytoplankton pigments, particulate organic and inorganic carbon, biogenic silica, heterotrophic bacterial responses, and microscopic phytoplankton identification to characterise community structures, and 15N measurements to identify the extent of nitrate versus ammonium metabolism – a key indicator of ecosystem Fe stimulation capable of additional carbon sequestration. Above and downstream of active hydrothermal systems, we will obtain samples for further analyses ashore. We also intend to carry out deckboard micro-nutrient enrichment incubation experiments to ascertain the biological response of hydrothermal iron to surface phytoplankton communities. Deployment of a bio-optical sensor package after each CTD deployment will provide measurements to link these communities to satellite images. [5] Ocean circulation around Heard Island and across the eastern Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. The shipboard ADCP and all available underway systems (thermosalinograph, meteorology, and biogeochemical systems) will be run at all times. We will seek contributions of autonomous instruments to deploy on the voyage to provide more detailed sampling of the circulation. We have contacted the Global Surface Drifter Program run by NOAA, and the Australian office of the International Argo Program. The lowered ADCP will be used at every CTD station to measure full water column velocity. New processing methods also allow the detection of internal waves and mixing using a shear-strain parameterisation, even in shallow waters. [Extract only] [6] Microbial response and bacterial processes What is the response of the microbial community to iron and organic carbon availability in different zones of the Southern Ocean, with focus on the possible impact of hydrothermal activity. More specific question: How does iron and carbon limitation affect heterotrophic bacterial respiration and growth efficiency, and its diversity? This text is an extract ONLY from the voyage plan. Please see in2016_v01 plan for full details.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 02 (mnf:IN2016_V02_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v02. Titled SOTS: Southern Ocean Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania. This voyage combines work from three projects. SOTS, CAPRICORN and Eddy Voyage objectives: SOTS The primary objective is to first deploy a reduced set (SAZ and FluxPulse) and then recover a full set of SOTS moorings (SOFS, Pulse, and SAZ). Additional work will obtain ancillary information on the atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and autonomous profiling “Bio-Argo” floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: • the SAZ sediment trap mooring focuses on quantifying the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and collecting samples to investigate their ecological controls • the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) focuses on air properties, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. • the Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focuses on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. • the FluxPulse mooring combines some elements of Pulse onto the SOFS platform to create a combined mooring, which will be deployed for the first time in 2016. This combination meets financial constraints while still measuring almost all planned parameters CAPRICORN • The primary objective is to collect cloud, aerosol, precipitation, radiation and atmospheric composition measurements over the Southern Ocean over 30 days, and to capture the latitudinal variability of these properties from the latitude of Hobart down to 55-60S if time allows. The Investigator will be equipped with a state-of the art suite of instruments for that purpose (see list in voyage plan). • In order to address the "satellite validation" objectives, we need to locate the research vessel under the track of the CloudSat-CALIPSO instrument and within the larger swath of the NASA GPM and A-Train radars and radiometers. This will be achieved in coordination with the requirement to sample a mesoscale oceanic eddy using a dedicated pattern that will include satellite track following and mesoscale eddy sampling using radial transects, after the SOTS moorings are deployed and recovered. • In order to address the "ACCESS model validation" objectives, we need to sample the sub-grid scale variability of the atmospheric properties, therefore we will undertake some periods of intensive sampling of 12*12 km2 grids with small-scale lawnmower patterns, ensuring that the aerosol measurements are not perturbed by the ship exhaust. The timing and location of these grids will be determined during the voyage. Eddy • Deploy a suite of floats, two different models per eddy, to obtain profiles of temperature, salinity, velocity, oxygen, nitrate, pH and bio-optics near the eddy centre while we perform spatial surveys. • Measure the velocities and mixing in the two eddies. • Quantify the elemental fluxes associated with the eddy circulation, including nutrient transport and air-sea CO2 flux. • Measure the biological response to the circulation and nutrient transport, including primary productivity, trace metal biogeochemistry, new production and the respiration of downward carbon flux (using free-drifting sediment traps). Our combined ship-satellite-float observations will provide the most comprehensive view thus far of Southern Ocean eddies. Our work also contributes to emerging international programs in the Southern Ocean that are combining expanded autonomous observations with large scale modelling efforts. Full details are in the in2016_v02 voyage plan.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 03 (mnf:IN2016_V03_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v03. Titled Monitoring Ocean Change and Variability along 170oW from the ice edge to the equator This voyage involves two legs from Hobart to Wellington(NZ) and Wellington(NZ) to Lautoka(Fiji). Voyage objectives of the major project - Monitoring Ocean Change and Variability along 170oW from the ice edge to the equator are: The primary voyage objective is to obtain repeat occupations of the 155 full-depth CTD and Niskin casts along the GO-SHIP P15S section, with chemistry performed on water collected at 36 bottle levels. We will measure temperature, salinity, pressure, oxygen, fluorometry, shear and micro-scale temperature continuously, and the major nutrients, oxygen, salinity, CFC and carbon components discretely via chemical analysis on board. Small amounts of material will be filtered and stored for genomic analyses back on land. CSIRO has completed this line twice before and international groups have completed similar work along lines further east. The work plan and timings are based on these past voyages. Argo float deployments will also be carried out – usually when just leaving a CTD station (SOCCOM floats) or during transit (we may slow the ship speed slightly). These will be over the ship’s stern (preferred). Voyage objectives of the supplementary project -Facing the challenges of under-ice for autonomous navigation are: Accurate navigation under both drift and stationary ice is one of the key unanswered questions in polar marine science and engineering. The primary aims of this project are to (1) estimate INS drift and calibration times; and, (2) test the integration of acoustic positioning methods in an INS within a drifting and rotating frame of reference. This project will develop error propagation models at increasing latitudes and test the use of a non-stationary, ship borne acoustic positioning network on a small (<3 m) AUV. Both are critical for robust, accurate and reliable AUV operation under-ice. The primary voyage objective is make measurements of inertial drift during vessel transit and calibration time while the Investigator is on station across as broad a range of latitudes as possible. The way that this will be achieved is that, while the vessel is on station, bench top tests will be conducted for alignment. Then, while moving, tests of inertial drift will be conducted. The student on board will work with the other PIs on board to coordinate timings of these tests but will not disrupt the other work taking place on board. The work plan and timing is based on methodologies established during past voyages. Full details can be found in the in2016_v03 voyage plan. Previous MNF voyages include RV Franklin FR 05/2001 and RV Southern Surveyor SS200901.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 04 (mnf:IN2016_V04_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v04, titled "Influence of temperature and nutrient supply on the biogeochemical function and diversity of ocean microbes." Scientific Objectives: 1. Characterise the diversity and function of microbial communities in the relatively warm EAC, against the relatively cool water of the Tasman Sea and adjacent shelf waters. 2. Conduct perturbation experiments to experimentally test the role of temperature and nutrients (particularly N and Fe) in microbially mediated biogeochemical transformations. 3. Assess the links between microbial biomass, size structure and carbon production with higher trophic levels zooplankton, micronekton and cetaceansseabirds) in a frontal eddy(ies) relative to adjacent shelf and EAC waters. 4. Sample sediments to examine water-sediment geochemical processes and historical record of plankton. Previous sampling opportunities have not allowed us to revisit water masses (Aim 1) or conduct replicate experiments in the same water mass (Aim 2). Our objectives are therefore to more comprehensively sample the distribution and diversity of microbes across multiple oceanographic features. This includes cross-shelf transects, but also includes cross-eddy transects by extending shelf transects offshore (Aim 3). To achieve Aim 3, we will require real-time satellite information to identify our target area, as well as access to the IMOS ocean colour, SST, SSH data archive while on board. We will also conduct in situ 'mapping' of the target frontal eddy area using the Triaxus towed underwater body before we determine the exact location of transects and daytime CTD stations. Aim 3 activities will also involve bioacoustic monitoring in the western Tasman Front off Port Stephens, and within and outside of a frontal eddy. This will involve recording data from the EK60 of all 5 frequencies (if possible), which need to be appropriately coordinated with both ADCP. We suggest the two instruments should be programmed to ping and listen together, and to ignore any EK60 deeper than 750 to 1,000 m (to be confirmed with MNF and CSIRO bioacoustics group). Aims 1 and 2 relate to our original application for ship time and are hence the top priority. The Aim 3 activities occur mostly at night, which can be integrated into the day-time focussed sampling of Aims 1 and 2. Our intent is therefore to address these aims in waters north of Bass Strait (depending on the oceanographic features present). Activities to address Aim 4 have the lowest priority and are left to later in the voyage, but PIs have indicated that sediment cores from Port Hacking (NSW) will have strong scientific value for examining sediment fluxes and looking at the historic presence of microbial taxa.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 05 (mnf:IN2016_V05_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v05, titled “The Great Barrier Reef as a significant source of climatically relevant aerosol particles.” Voyage objectives The main objective of the voyage is to acquire observations that will address four key science questions about the role of atmospheric composition in the GBR region: 1. Do marine aerosols along the north Queensland coast have a significant signature that is coral derived? 2. How does this aerosol change its physicochemical properties, especially its capacity to act as CCN, as winds carry it from the reefs to the north Queensland rainforests? 3. What is the significance of this ecosystem as a source of aerosol particles and will potential degradation of the reef cause significant variations in particle number being generated over the reef. 4. Should changes in this aerosol, associated with reef degradation, be taken into account when modelling the radiative climate and rainfall? • Two stations on the western side of the GBR. These stations will enable us to sample the air masses that have traversed over the reefs and have been enriched by the emissions from the reefs. • One station on the eastern side of the GBR. As the predominant wind direction during the trade wind season is south easterlies this station will enable us to characterise the remote pacific air masses coming towards the GBR. • Optics station in deep water (>200m) east of Heron Island to characterise the sea surface spectral reflectance and in water optical properties including the spectral absorption of optically active constituents in the water. Supplementary Project: Biogeochemical and optical properties of the Coral Sea and Queensland Shelf Objectives 1. To collect high resolution biogeochemical observations for validation of the 4km and 1km near real time eReefs models (https://research.csiro.au/ereefs/) 2. To get modellers in the field to better understand methods and issues associated with modern methods of data collection 3. To collect in situ optical data for the NASA CORAL project which is operating a very high resolution airborne hyperspectral sensor along selected transects in the GBR. Piggy-back Project: Project 3DGBR - Multibeam bathymetry mapping of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea Objectives: 1. To acquire high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and water column data along the voyage track for the duration of the voyage. The new bathymetry data will be used to improve the accuracy of the 100 m-resolution DEM for the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, called the ‘gbr100’ grid: http://www.deepreef.org/bathymetry/65-3dgbr-bathy.html 2. On an opportunity basis and subject to workload, acquire sub-bottom profile data using the SBP120 profiler during the voyage. The sub-bottom profiler data will be used in conjunction with the multibeam data for ongoing marine geoscience projects in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. For more information please refer to the Voyage Plan.

RVIN - 2016 Voyage 06 (mnf:IN2016_V06_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v06, titled "Sustained monitoring of the EAC: mass, heat and freshwater transports." This voyage will recover and re-deploy an array of six full-depth current meter and property (temperature, salinity and pressure) moorings from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane (27o S). The observing system is designed to capture the mean and time-varying flow of the EAC. In order to resolve interannual and decadal signals we aim to maintain a multi-year deployment of the array. The following specific objectives will be performed: 1. Recover and deploy moorings at appropriate locations. 2. Complete CTD/rosette stations at each mooring location, with LADCP. 3. Complete a number of Ship ADCP sections along the mooring line. Supplementary projects: 1) Turbulence scales and horizontal variability in the surface layer of the Ocean. Objectives: To gain more insight into turbulence scales in the upper ocean (0 - 200 m depth) across the continental shelf using a TuboMAP turbulence probe and to measure horizontal variability of CTD data in the upper ocean using a Seabird 19+ CTD unit. The TurboMAP can record data with vertical profiling (upcast and downcast). Based on a temperature gradient and mean falling speed of the probe the levels of turbulence dissipation and mixing properties can be derived. The CTD (Seabird 19+) unit will collect data at a fixed depth (ca. 20 m) while the ship is drifting at a speed of 0.5 - 1 m/s. 2) Spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of seabirds. Objectives: The project seeks to quantify the distribution and abundance of seabirds at sea using standardised seabird survey protocols. One or two dedicated observers will collect real-time data on seabirds observed within 300m transect during daylight hours while the vessel is underway. Incidental observations will be collected while the vessel is stationary (eg CTD stations) or while the vessel is deploying moorings. The data collected will be compatible with previous seabird at sea surveys conducted around Australia and farther south, allowing for analyses and assessments to be extended by the current surveys. The distribution of seabirds at sea is strongly linked with oceanographic features such as convergences that concentrate prey at densities that allow for efficient foraging by seabirds. Our surveys on the voyage will link with oceanographic investigations to identify the types and strengths of oceanographic features at which we observe different species of seabirds that utilise different methods of feeding (surface seizing, diving etc). No dedicated ship time is required for the seabird surveys. Surveys are conducted by observers while the vessel is underway during daylight hours.

2017 (2017)

RVIN - 2017 Charter 01 (mnf:IN2017_C01_VOYAGE)

The voyage objectives are built around three main scientific objectives: • The benthic characterisation and sampling outcropping sedimentary rocks to aid understanding of modern seabed erosional mechanisms, sedimentary processes and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. • Benthic characterisation and sampling in areas of potential seepage to determine if fluid escape is occurring and the nature of the fluids and their relationship to the benthic fauna in these areas. • Sampling of benthic fauna over a large geographic area to establish deep water community structure and function and augment understandings gained from recent IN2015_C01 and IN2015_C02 voyages. Benthic characterisation of outcrop rocks and sampling of benthic fauna carry higher weight than that of the seep characterisation. The voyage plan includes more planned operations in each target area than can be achieved within the time allocations for the survey. Each of these target areas are ranked based on their importance in delivering on the scientific objectives. The survey will use a hierarchical design comprising seafloor mapping prior to seafloor sampling and limited water column characterisation. Seafloor mapping and water column characterisation 1. Hull mounted acoustic characterisation of the water column and seafloor over the target areas of interest. This activity will comprise the use of MBES, water column acoustic backscatter, single beam echo sounder, sub-bottom profiler and ADCP to determine processes occurring in the water column and map the seafloor and shallow subsurface geology. 2. Seafloor characterisation from the surface will be complemented with a limited number of tow camera to obtain video transects across the target area seafloor and overlying near bottom waters. Seafloor and water column sampling A number of sampling operations will be undertaken to describe the seafloor geology and benthic biota. Each sampling operation will differ dependant on sampling target, primarily based on substrate composition. For the soft substrate targets there will be a focus on grab samples whilst for the harder substrate types the focus will be on dredging. Sampling will be by: 1. Deployment of grab sampler to sample the surface sediment infauna, microbiology, hydrocarbon chemistry and physical properties. 2. Use of a beam trawl or Sherman sled to collect samples of benthic macro fauna over target areas. 3. Use of rock dredges to collects lithified sediments for description and detailed chemical analysis. 4. Limited collections of water column profile data including CTD, chemical sensor readings and associated water samples

RVIN - 2017 Charter 02 (mnf:IN2017_C02_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v02, titled "RAN Hydrographic Survey." Voyage objectives: to undertake hydrographic survey operations in the vicinity of Hogan Island (Bass Strait) to facilitate safe navigation for international and coastal shipping. The meteorological and oceanographic observations and data collection have three purposes, namely: a. To collect data from which a sonar or radar range prediction can be calculated (humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed, ocean temperature and salinity profile, currents through depth, sediment type, sub-bottom classification, where possible). b. To identify what observations can be conducted concurrently, and what observations have limiting factors that preclude concurrent operations/survey activity. c. To develop understanding of what types, accuracy and formats of data can be collected and how this might be of use to the scientific community and Defence.

RVIN - 2017 Gear Trials 01 (mnf:IN2017_E01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2017_e01, titled “MNF Equipment Sea Trials.” The Primary objective of IN2017_E01 is to complete the sea trial regime as follows: • Demonstrate the 2 x CTD system function correctly after recent winch modifications & wire respooling; • Verify RAPP software updates to the CTD winches; • Deep towed camera system testing after modifications (SIT); • Verify integrity of seismic air system after modifications (MNF); • Complete weather radar function testing (SIT); • Deploy work boat and compile a lesson’s learnt / improvements list.

RVIN - 2017 Gear Trials 02 (mnf:IN2017_E02_VOYAGE)

Gear Trials

RVIN - 2017 Gear Trials 03 (mnf:IN2017_E03_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2017_e03, titled “Brisbane Port Period Sea Trials.” The primary objective was to complete sea trials of onboard equipment as described in the Voyage Plan.

RVIN - 2017 Gear Trials 04 (mnf:IN2017_E04_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2017_e04, titled “Sea Trials, Calibration & Training.” This trial voyage will start and finish in Hobart and will conduct tests and calibration of MNF equipment plus training for MNF staff and future scientific voyage participants.

RVIN - 2017 Transit 01 (mnf:IN2017_T01_VOYAGE)

The application will support research to quantify the importance of iron-rich aerosols from Australia for marine biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystem health. The project will sample and conduct experiments on atmospheric particles containing terrestrial dust and bushfire smoke that are transported from Australia to its surrounding oceans. The application supports the training and research of two postgraduate students from IMAS-UTAS. The outcomes will provide a scientific basis for managing the complex role of iron in sustaining marine ecosystem biodiversity and for informing government policy on ocean fertilisation as a carbon mitigation strategy.

RVIN - 2017 Transit 02 (mnf:IN2017_T02_VOYAGE)

The training objectives of CAPSTAN's 1st Pilot Voyage are to: * Enable national access to the RV Investigator to postgraduate students enrolled in Australian tertiary institutions. * Provide hands-on training experiences with standard modern sampling equipment used in marine research, encompassing geological, biological, chemical, physical oceanographic and atmospheric equipment. * Establish national network of new generation marine scientists. * Develop post-graduate training programs for refinement over the pilot three-year trial period. * Involve a diverse number of national trainers and students in the program. * Provide trainers with the opportunity to gain experience as Chief Scientist/Co Chief Scientist. The specific transit objectives are to: * Undertake a general scientific assessment of key physical, biogeochemical, geological and ecological features of a specific shelf/slope region. The far western Great Australian Bight was selected as a study region (see details below) for this first CAPSTAN cruise.

RVIN - 2017 Voyage 01 (mnf:IN2017_V01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator voyage in2017_v01, titled "Interactions of the Totten Glacier with the Southern Ocean through multiple glacial cycles." The primary voyage objectives are: 1. To survey and map, using multibeam, subbottom profiler, bioacoustics echosounder and gravity profiling, by priority, the: a) Continental slope of the Sabrina coast margin, which are presumed to contain the canyons fed by outflow from the Totten Glacier. i) Area A4. ii) Area C4. b) Sabrina coast shelf region, which links the Totten Glacier to the slope, where sea ice free conditions permit. i) Area B. 2. To undertake seismic strike and dip lines, by priority, on the: a) continental slope of the Sabrina coast margin, using Italian and MNF seismic equipment, in day-light hours with respect to permitted Marine Mammal Observation protocols, in: i) Area A4. ii) Area C4. 3. To retrieve slope and shelf sediments, for a variety of palaeoceanographic, micropalaeontological, genomic and geochemical studies (as approved by ATEP and AMLR permits) on the: a) continental slope of the Sabrina coast margin (Priority Area A4 and C4). b) Sabrina coast shelf region (Area B), where sea-ice free conditions permit. 4. To retrieve water samples, for a variety of palaeoceanographic, microbiological, genomic and geochemical studies (and approved by AMLR permit), with reference to hydrochemical characterisation on the: a) continental slope of the Sabrina coast margin (Priority Area A4 and C4). b) Sabrina coast shelf region (Area B), where sea ice free conditions permit. 5. To record video and still imagery of the seafloor biota and geomorphological characteristics, for habitat mapping using deep tow video systems and multi-corer video on the: i. continental slope of the Sabrina coast margin (Priority Area A4 and C4), ii. Sabrina coast shelf region (Area B), which links the Totten Glacier to the slope, where sea ice free conditions permit. 6. To collect oceanographic and climatic parameters using expendable bathymetric (XBT), ADCP and underway instruments.

RVIN - 2017 Voyage 02 (mnf:IN2017_V02_VOYAGE)

The Southern Ocean Time Series provides world-leading automated observations from deep-ocean moorings of the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them. These results contribute to forward projections of anthropogenic climate warming, inform the setting of emissions targets, illuminate controls on climate variability, and provide a baseline for impacts on ocean pelagic ecology. Sensor data is returned live to the internet and samples are returned annually for further study in shore laboratories. The primary objective is to first deploy a new set of SOTS moorings (SAZ-19 and SOFS-6) and then recover the existing SOTS moorings (FluxPulse-1 lower section, and SAZ-18). Additional work will obtain ancillary information on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions using CTD casts, underway measurements, the Triaxus towed body, and autonomous profiling "Bio-Argo" floats. Each of the SOTS moorings delivers to specific aspects of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges, with some redundancy: * the SAZ sediment trap mooring collects samples to quantify the transfer of carbon and other nutrients to the ocean interior by sinking particles, and investigate their ecological controls. * the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) measures meteorological properties and ocean properties important to air-sea exchanges, ocean stratification, waves, and currents. * the (now superceded) Pulse biogeochemistry mooring focused on processes important to biological CO2 consumption, including net community production from oxygen measurements and nitrate depletion, biomass concentrations from bio-optics and bio-acoustics, and collection of water samples for nutrient and plankton quantification. * the FluxPulse mooring combines some elements of Pulse onto the SOFS platform to create a combined mooring, and was deployed for the first time in 2016, but broke into two sections. The top section has been recovered. The bottom section remains to be recovered. This combined mooring was intended to meet financial constraints. In 2017 we will use the simpler SOFS design, while redesigning FluxPulse for relaunch in 2018. Piggyback projects: * International Nutrient Intercalibration Exercise * Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Distribution and Abundance of Seabirds * Trace Element Cycling * Acoustic estimates of zooplankton and fish distributions

RVIN - 2017 Voyage 03 (mnf:IN2017_V03_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2017_v03, titled "Sampling the abyss: latitudinal biodiversity patterns along the base of Australia's eastern continental margin." The primary objective of this voyage is to sample the biodiversity of lower bathyal (2500 m) and abyssal (4000 m) seafloor habitats off south-eastern Australia, and in particular deep-water ecosystems of seven Commonwealth marine reserves. We will also sample a few shallower stations at 300 m (to trial the Brenke sled) and at 1000m (to ensure a supply of live animals). The depth and sites listed below are indicative only, and may change slightly based on topography and weather. To meet these objectives we will deploy a variety of gear to sample different components of biodiversity. The gear will also vary depending on the nature of the substratum (soft sediments or rock). The prime gear types include: 1. Beam trawl (O&A). This will only be used at sites with soft substrata 2. Heavy sled (Sherman) (MNF). This will only be used for sites that are determined to be hard ground from the multi-beam data. Sherman must be deployed off a stern trawl winch, which will require shifting of a trawl door (there will be plenty of time for this operation as all the soft-sediment gear will not be used at a rocky site). 3. Demersal trawl (NCRA) including floats (NCRA) & doors (Antarctic Division), the latter will be mounted on the stern near the trawl winches when not in use. Soft sediment only. 4. Brenke sled (MNF). Soft sediment or mixed soft-hard ground. It may require 2-3 floats to ensure it remains upright when deployed. It should be retrieved in an upright position using the A-Frame. A stand-alone CTD or camera can be mounted on the frame (see figure). 5. Biological box corer (MNF, previously belonging to Geoscience Australia) of dimensions 500 x 500 mm, sampling size 0.25 m2 (soft sediment only). If possible, this is best deployed on the side winch. 6. Deep-towed camera (MNF) with CTD 7. Surface plankton & mantra nets (O&A and MV), including depression plate and flow meter. In addition, we require multi-beam (Kongsberg EM122 & EM710) and sub bottom profiler for seafloor mapping, and echo sounders for bioacoustics (particularly the Simrad EK60). At each site, the procedure will be to first multi-beam the site to assess the distribution of rock and soft sediment habitats (if previous multi-beam data not available. This will guide the choice of gear and tow track. If the substratum contains mostly rock (possible for some 2500m sites), the heavy sled (Sherman) will be deployed. Otherwise a combination of beam trawl (with mounted camera), Brenke sled, demersal trawl and box core will be deployed. Box cores will be sub-sampled for sediment size and micro-plastics. For shallow water sites within CMRs, the deep-towed camera will be deployed instead of the box corer. The surface plankton net can be deployed during trawling (at appropriate slow ship speeds of under 2 knots). On this voyage there will be a particular emphasis on ensuring that the animals are collected and preserved in excellent condition for photographic and genetic analyses. Keeping the animals cold is the key. Consequently, the catch will be transferred to chilled water (5°C) as soon as it safe to approach the sampling gear. The animals will be sorted, identified and photographed in chilled water to prevent DNA degradation. The box cores will be elutriated (animals separated from mud) in chilled water also (at least for the upper 2 cm). This will require a user-supplied system to chill water in the vessel's walk in cool room. The bulk ethanol and formalin will be stored in the HazMat container, as will the 25L plastic drums full of preserved animals. For more information please refer to the voyage plan

RVIN - 2017 Voyage 04 (mnf:IN2017_V04_VOYAGE)

Zooplankton include the microscopic animals that link the ocean's single-celled algae and our fisheries, but it is a complex link. Huge changes in fish production may result from subtle changes in zooplankton production. The size distribution of zooplankton is a practical way to investigate this problem. This relatively simple size-based ecosystem will be integrated with the much larger sizes of krill, squid and pelagic fish. For the first time, the links between open ocean production and coastal fisheries of south eastern Australia will be established. This will inform environmental assessments and ecosystem sustainability, including the viability of super-trawlers in Australian waters.

RVIN - 2017 Voyage 05 (mnf:IN2017_V05_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v05, titled “Long-term recovery of trawled marine communities 25 years after the world’s largest adaptive management experiment." The North West Shelf has seen massive reductions in trawling area and effort over past decades from the previous high levels of foreign trawling up until 1990. There remains debate about whether slow growing benthic organisms such as coral and sponges have recovered from this disturbance and whether the current management zoning which has been in place for 20 years and which includes areas closed to fishing, specific areas for trawling and trap is sustainable and effective. The outcomes of the study will have relevance to how trawl fishing is managed in Australia and internationally.

2018 (2018)

RVIN - 2018 Transit 01 (mnf:IN2018_T01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2018_t01, titled “Physical, chemical and biogeochemical gradients in the East Australian Current" (Chief Scientist: Dr Zanna Chase, UTAS). This voyage will train Masters students from the University of Tasmania in oceanographic methods. Students will map changes in temperature, salinity and nutrients along 2,500 km of the eastern Australian coast. Biological sampling will document the changes in ocean plankton from the subantarctic waters near Tasmania to the tropics. By observing the change in current biological communities along a south-to-north temperature gradient, students will gain an appreciation of changes that may occur over time due to climate change. Students will gain valuable training in oceanographic field techniques, data analysis and communication.

RV Investigator Voyage IN2018_T02 (mnf:IN2018_T02_VOYAGE)

Harmful Algal Blooms And Their Long-Term Sediment Record In East Coast Tasmanian Waters (Chief Scientist: Gustaaf Hallegraeff, IMAS/UTAS) Unprecedented toxic dinoflagellate blooms occurred off east coast Tasmania in 2012 and 2015/2016. These events led to a global shellfish product recall (AUD23M loss), lengthy (4 months) closures of mussel, oyster, scallop, and rock lobster fisheries, and 4 human hospitalisations (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning). While the causative Alexandrium dinoflagellate had been previously detected, genetic evidence suggests that blooms represent a cryptic genotype newly stimulated by climate-driven increased water column stratification. We seek to characterize blooms from with the long time (1000+ yr) ancient DNA sediment record using novel genetic methods.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 01 (mnf:IN2018_V01_VOYAGE)

Detecting Southern Ocean change from repeat hydrography, deep Argo and trace element biogeochemistry (Chief Scientist: Dr Steve Rintoul, CSIRO) The Southern Ocean has a profound influence on regional and global climate, sea level rise, and biological productivity. The project aims to discover how and why the Southern Ocean is changing, and to identify the consequences of those changes for climate, sea level and marine life. The research will help deliver more reliable projections of future climate, from models that more faithfully represent critical Southern Ocean processes; such information is urgently needed to allow Australia to foresee and manage the risks and opportunities associated with climate change. CAPRICORN: clouds, aerosols, precipitation, radiation and atmospheric composition over the Southern Ocean (Lead Principal Investigator: Dr Alain Protat, BOM) Clouds over the Southern Ocean are one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the future climate of the Southern Hemisphere. This study will bridge an observational gap in this data-sparse, unique region of the World assisting in understanding why climate models poorly simulate the energy balance over the Southern Ocean and improving skill of weather forecast models to simulate frontal cloud systems. This will be achieved by analysing cloud, aerosol, and precipitation observations of frontal cloud systems and associated processes using dedicated radar, lidar, and radiosounding observations from the RV Investigator and satellite platforms.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 02 (mnf:IN2018_V02_VOYAGE)

Integrated Monitoring Observing System Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (Chief Scientist: Professor Tom Trull, ACE-CRC) The Southern Ocean Time Series provides world-leading automated observations from deep-ocean moorings of the exchanges of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the ocean and atmosphere, and the physical and biological processes that control them. These results contribute to forward projections of anthropogenic climate warming, inform the setting of emissions targets, illuminate controls on climate variability, and provide a baseline for impacts on ocean pelagic ecology. Sensor data is returned live to the internet and samples are returned annually for further study in shore laboratories. Subantarctic Biogeochemistry of Carbon and Iron, Southern Ocean Time Series site (Lead Principal Investigator: Professor Philip Boyd, UTAS) The Southern Ocean straddles the waters between Australia and Antarctica and has two distinct regions – the subantarctic and the polar seas. The latter is comprehensively studied by expeditions by Australia’s Antarctic Division, whereas the subantarctic has received much less attention. This voyage aims to determine processes within the subantarctic environment that control productivity, foodwebs and cycles of elements such as carbon. Enhanced understanding will maximise investments, such as in ocean time-series in subpolar waters and enable better predictions to be made on how marine life and chemistry are controlled by both natural and human-made shifts in climate and ocean conditions.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 03 (mnf:IN2018_V03_VOYAGE)

Integrated Marine Observing System: monitoring of East Australian Current property transports at 27 degrees South (Chief Scientist: Dr Bernadette Sloyan, CSIRO) The East Australian Current (EAC) is the complex and highly energetic western boundary current of the South Pacific Ocean. The EAC is the dominant mechanism for the redistribution of heat and freshwater between the ocean and atmosphere in the Australian region; it is a vital component of the eastern Australian coastal ecosystem. The monitoring of the EAC is central to our understanding of how climate variability is communicated through the global ocean. This ocean current time-series will provide significant insights into the interactions between the EAC, the Pacific basin and the local shelf ocean circulation.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 04 (mnf:IN2018_V04_VOYAGE)

“RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v04, titled “Constraining external iron inputs and cycling in the southern extension of the East Australian Current.” The primary objective of the voyage is to characterise the sources and biogeochemical cycling of iron and associated nutrients and their impact on productivity southwest, southeast and northeast of Tasmania. This will require various deployments at a number of process and transit stations. Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale physics and biogeochemistry TRIAXUS: This will provide high-resolution real-time data acquisition on upper ocean (1-200 m) physics (mixed layer depth) and biology (chlorophyll fluorescence, transmissivity). We will survey each process station by conducting a transect across each station, ‘figure-eight’ type survey if possible for 10-12 hours, and tow the Triaxus between process stations 1, 2 and 3. These datasets will be complemented by those from underway sampling (including nutrient concentrations, biooptics, Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometry (FRRF, a measure of phytoplankton ‘health’), trace metal concentrations using a trace-metal clean tow-fish to sample at 5 m. SADCP/LADCP: Continuous measurements of velocity will be collected along the ships track using the 75 kHz and 150 kHz shipboard ADCPs. A lowered ADCP (LADCP) will collect horizontal velocity measurements at each station from the CTD package. Process and transit station deployments determine iron supply and cycling CTD rosette: Profiles of temperature, salinity, and oxygen through the upper ocean at transit stations and full ocean depth at process stations. Water samples collected with the 36-bottle rosette will be analysed on board for salinity, oxygen, nutrients. LADCP data will also be collected from the CTD deployments. TMR and ISP deployments: An autonomous 12 bottle trace metal-clean rosette (TMR) system and 6 in situ pumps (ISPs) will be used to collect trace element and isotope samples in dissolved and particulate phases. Clean sampling and analytical container laboratories will allow for shipboard processing, experiments and some near real-time analyses of iron at sea. The majority of the analyses will take place ashore after the voyage using sophisticated instrumentation not suited for shipboard use. In situ primary production: Primary production experiments will be conducted at each process station. The experiments will require radiolabeling samples with 55Fe and 14C in the Radiation van and then incubated in the deck-board incubators. Incubations: Some incubations may be conducted at each process station. The experiments will require the changes in light, nutrient and or trace metal conditions. Samples will then be incubated in the deck-board incubators or the ones in the dry lab. Multicorer deployment: Surface sediment cores (0 to 30 cm) will be collected on and off the Tasmanian shelf and at the three process stations. Cores will be evaluated for integrity upon recovery, sectioned inside a nitrogen-filled glove bag, and centrifuged to extract pore fluid for trace metal and rare-earth analysis. Kasten gravity corer: Longer sediment cores (0 to 4 m) will be collected at the three process stations. Cores will be evaluated for integrity upon recovery and subsampled for shore-based analyse. These will complement multicorer deployments. We hope to obtain one core at each of the process stations. Core barrels will 4 m in length.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 05 (mnf:IN2018_V05_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2018_v05, titled “How does a standing meander southeast of Tasmania brake the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?" The planet’s largest current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) distributes heat, freshwater and carbon-dioxide among the major oceans. It is a central element of the global overturning circulation that has allowed the ocean to absorb 93% of global warming. Despite Southern Ocean winds increasing for the last 2 decades, the ACC strength has not changed. A major puzzle in understanding climate variability is how the ACC responds to the additional wind energy. We will address the societally-important need to understand how the ACC and Southern Ocean’s capacity to absorb heat and carbon-dioxide will respond to climate variability and change. We will combine a full-depth CTD/LADCP and bathymetric survey of the full meander, with targeted, rapid underway sampling of smaller-scale variability using the Triaxus towed CTD, a VMP-2000 microstructure profiler and underway instruments. Multi-beam data will be important for interpreting the survey data. Water samples will be analysed for nutrients, chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon (POC). Incubation experiments will be conducted to observe phytoplankton productivity under varying physical and chemical conditions. Objectives 1. Deployment of a fleet of EM-APEX profiling floats. 2. Deployment of a tall mooring at the crest of a meander in the Polar Front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. 3. Full-depth hydrographic survey of the physics and biogeochemistry of the targeted ACC meander, conducting transects across the front. This will include CTD/LADCP profiles, water sample analysis, VMP-2000 microstructure profiles, bathymetry and underway instruments. 4. Triaxus transects. These will include transects across and along the front and transects around the mooring.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 06 (mnf:IN2018_V06_VOYAGE)

Status and recovery of deep-sea coral communities on seamounts in iconic Australian marine reserves (Chief Scientist: Dr Alan Williams, CSIRO) Australia has protected spectacular deep-sea coral reefs living on undersea mountains (‘seamounts’) by including some in marine reserves off Tasmania. This protection is an important step in marine conservation because deep-sea coral reefs support highly diverse communities of seafloor organisms, but are fragile and vulnerable to human disturbance – particularly by bottom trawling. Scientists on RV Investigator will conduct camera surveys to map the extent of the globally-significant deep-sea coral reefs, and determine how much of the reef area lies within reserves. Scientists will also measure how the reefs have recovered from earlier trawling impacts since being protected in marine reserves.

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 07 (mnf:IN2018_V07_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2018_v07, titled “SOTS: Southern Ocean Time Series automated moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania.” Voyage objectives: 1. Deploy SOFS-7.5 meteorology/biogeochemistry mooring & triangulate. 2. Do a CTD (1 cast to 2250m) at the SOFS-7.5 site, including collecting samples for nutrients, oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and POC & pigments. 3. Carry out underway air sensor measurement comparison between ship and SOFS-7.5 mooring. The priority is deploying SOFS-7.5 mooring (objective 1).

RVIN - 2018 Voyage 08 (mnf:IN2018_V08_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2086_v08, titled "The Balleny mantle plume: key role in Tasmania-Antarctic breakup?" Objective 1. Collect seafloor and subseafloor geophysical data. This data will be used: a. To identify seafloor fabric, which will help refine plate reconstructions of the Tasman Seas in areas difficult to constrain from magnetic anomaly lineations alone; b. To obtain comprehensive multibeam and backscatter coverage of the seamounts and their morphology to understand tectonic setting, eruptive style, palaeo-water-depth and sedimentation patterns; c. To assist in dredge site targeting by identifying sediment-free scarps and slopes; d. Sub-bottom profile data will be collected to provide additional context for the nature of the near-surface sediment and geological structure. Objective 2. Dredge volcanic samples from seamounts along the proposed Balleny Seamount chain. Ashore, samples will be: a. Ar/Ar Dated to determine the age and duration of seamount formation; b. Volcanic coherent rocks will be described macroscopically, petrographically and mineralogically to classify and characterise the type volcanism on the seamounts. Comparing the nature and origin of volcanism at different sites may reveal multiple episodes of volcanism or variations in volcanic activity in time and space. c. Volcaniclastic rocks will be described macroscopically, petrographically, mineralogically and include ash morphology descriptions. This work will constrain submarine/subaerial eruption/emplacement and style of transport d. Sedimentary rocks will be described macroscopically, microscopically and petrographically. Additional U-Pb geochronology will be undertaken as will micro- and macro-fossil palaeontology. These analyses can constrain depth, environment, and time of deposition, important for constraining the timing and rate of subsidence.

2019 (2019)

RV Investigator Voyage IN2019_V01 (mnf:IN2019_V01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2019_v01, titled "The availability of Antarctic krill to large predators and their role in biogeochemical recycling in the Southern Ocean." We will operate south of 60°S, northward of the ice edge, and between 140°E and 175°W. The specific study area/s within these boundaries will be determined by the locations of vocalising Antarctic blue whales, krill and sea-ice. The survey design is therefore adaptive in that sites will be chosen in real-time on the voyage according to available information. At the commencement of the voyage we will head straight to the closest group of vocalising Antarctic blue whales (ABWs) within our operational area. Vocalising ABWs are able to be detected through sonobuoys (see below) hundreds of kilometres away. When whales are found we will undertake a series of activities at that site. We will then commence a series of line transects in the same region and remain within the same area for the rest of the voyage. The study is therefore on a mesoscale and we do not aim to cover our entire operational area. The activities required to achieve our voyage objectives are: • Passive Acoustics • Whale observing, video-tracking and biopsy • Active Acoustics • Krill trawls • Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) • Biogeochemistry

2003 (2003)

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200301_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval. Dredging of the scarps (rather than the Eocene volcanic peaks) of the Norfolk and Loyalty Ridges and Three Kings Rise (near the boundary of the Tasman Sea, Coral Sea and the Western Pacific Ocean). The dredge sites will hopefully yield Cretaceous-Palaeocene subduction-related volcanic rocks, and perhaps even fragments of the hypothesised most easterly continental crust of Australia rifted from the eastern Lord Howe Rise in the Cretaceous.

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200302_VOYAGE)

To investigate the submarine hydrothermal plume activity and petrology of the Eastern Lau spreading center and Neighbouring Tofu Arc, Tonga (14 Mar - 3 Apr, 2003)

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200303_VOYAGE)

Processed underway dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200304_VOYAGE)

To identify and quantify sediment sources, sinks and the Late Quaternary history of terrigenous sedimentation in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, To locate and map areas on the shelf characterised by modern terrigenous deposition, To derive sediment budgets representative of the main depositional environments, To date the onset of Holocene, pro-deltaic to distal deltaic/open shelf terrigenous sediment deposition as a function of distance from the coast, To validate the GEOMAT sediment mobility model and its prediction of southward oriented maximum tidal current vectors adjacent to Mornington Island

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200305_VOYAGE)

The cruise objectives are to obtain the magnetotelluric (MT) data required for the project by deploying to the seabed a number of recording OBEMs ( Ocean Bottom Electrometer/Magnetometers) along transects aligned with Geoscience Australia's seismic line 100/003 in the Bonaparte Gulf. These instruments free-fall to the sea floor and record magnetic and electric field fluctuations until they are acoustically commanded to re-surface. The instruments weigh approximately 250 kg, and deployment and recovery is by light crane over the side of the vessel. Such procedures with these instruments have been used many times previously on R.V. Franklin.

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200306_VOYAGE)

INSTANT: International Nusantara Stratification And Transport program.

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS200307_VOYAGE)

To use Southern Surveyor to investigate: The physical, chemical, and biological (phytoplankton, zooplankton and micro-nekton) structure along a transect north of Perth extending from the nearshore (17 m depth) to offshore (1000 m depth); Measure processes associated with biological productivity inshore and offshore; Relationships between topography, currents and concentrations of krill in the region of Perth canyon.

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 08 (mnf:SS200308_VOYAGE)

Key objectives for this voyage are to understand the impact of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies on the productivity of the eastern Indian Ocean, and to determine the links between the physical oceanography of these eddies, vertical nitrogen fluxes, productivity and larval fish survival.

RVSS - 2003 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS200309_VOYAGE)

This Voyage will examine the continental shelf processes between Cape Leeuwin and the Abrolhos islands off the West Australian coast during the summer.

2004 (2004)

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200401_VOYAGE)

The scientific objectives of this voyage were to examine seasonality in community structure, productivity and energy flows in the continental shelf and offshore pelagic environment off southwestern Western Australia.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200402_VOYAGE)

This project will contribute to linking observations of oceanography, zooplankton, fish choruses and blue whales in the Perth Canyon, a biological `hotspot`. Specific aims of the voyage are to carry out fine scale sampling of the Perth Canyon

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200403_VOYAGE)

The scientific objectives of this voyage are to investigate the nature of sedimentary sequences in the Bremer Basin, as part of an assessment of its petroleum potential. Voyage Objectives are to aquire geoscience data from the outer shelf to abyssal plain in the area 116 deg 30 min E to 121 deg 30 min E. Highest priorities are seismic profiling and dredging, secondary priorities are magnetic profiling (on seismic profiles), swath mapping, echosounder profiling and coring.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200404_VOYAGE)

The scientific objective of this voyage was to test and refine techniques to map and assess seabed habitat developed in a previous CMR project (NOO OP2000-SE02) using the National Facility's newly installed high-resolution EM300 swath mapper. The sampling locations are a number of submarine canyons on the west coast of Tasmania and east of Bass Strait.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200405_VOYAGE)

To acquire geoscience data from the Kenn Plateau to the abyssal plain. 200-4500 m water depth 20 to 27° South, 154 to 159° East. Highest priorities are seismic profiling (3300 km at 7.5 knots) and dredging (40 dredges, 500-4000 m water depth) Secondary priorities are magnetic profiling (on seismic profiles), swath mapping, echosounder profiling, seabed sampling (10 cores, 500-4000 m water depth) and 10 grabs, 200-1000 m water depth) Swath will be run the whole time, except on final transit to Nouméa Transits at 11 knots to and from work area.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200406_VOYAGE)

To swath-map the Coriolis Troughs (Vanuatu) (Fig. 1) with multibeam sonar, in order to identify areas of exposed lavas, including coverage of the known occurrences in the northern end of the Futuna Basin and the Nifonea Ridge in the Vate Trough; To explore for and map the distribution of active hydrothermal venting systems of the Coriolis Troughs; To revisit the Nifonea Ridge hydrothermal vent system discovered on RV Franklin (FR08/2001), and determined whether changes have occurred in the intervening 3 years; To recover fresh igneous and mineralised rock, sediment, and water samples associated with igneous activity in these Troughs.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS200407_VOYAGE)

This research voyage will be conducted off the West Coast of Tasmania in July and August 2004. The voyage has two aims. Firstly, it will further develop acoustic remote sensing methods to help determine the population size, species discrimination and spatial gradients, applied to the dominant acoustic species and their dynamics on the west coast of Tasmania. Secondly, it will provide underpinning observations of the physical and biological environment of the west coast of Tasmania's winter spawning blue grenadier population and the relationship with key canyon features within the region. The research voyage will be part funded by a 3 year collaborative FRDC/CSIRO/ Fishing Industry (Ocean Fresh and Petuna Sealords) project to develop a long-term sustainable observation strategy using industry vessels on the west coast of Tasmania.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 08 (mnf:SS200408_VOYAGE)

Observe using the SeaSoar with an optical plankton counter, the detailed hydrodynamic structure of the front from its separation point near the coast, and to follow it into deeper waters (the Tasman Front); (Suthers & Middleton) Examine the bio-physical structure in the wake around a shelf island (the South Solitary Island); (Suthers & Middleton) To compare the zooplankton size structure with the growth of larval fish (pilchards) over a range of oceanographic conditions; (Suthers) To investigate the early life history of pilchards in the Tasman Front, in comparison with the Kuroshio extension; (Suthers) To compare these data against a size-based mechanistic model of the pelagic ecosystem (Baird, Suthers and Middleton)

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS200409_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor voyage SS09/2004 conducted pelagic habitat and community comparisons in the fishing grounds of the tuna and billfish fishery off eastern Australia during October 2004.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 10 (mnf:SS200410_VOYAGE)

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 11 (mnf:SS200411_VOYAGE)

Voyage SS 11/2004, NOTOVE-2004 (Northern Tonga Vents Expedition) will continue to investigate the Submarine hydrothermal plume activity and petrology of the northern Tofua Arc, Tonga, complimenting the work of SS 02/2003. Specific objectives are: 1. To perform the first detailed, high-resolution, swathmap bathymetric surveys of individual submarine volcanoes of the northern Tofua Arc between 20o 50'S and 15o 20'S, using the Kongsberg EM300 system; 2. To perform the first detailed, high-resolution swathmap bathymetric survey of the Fonualei Rifts, a nascent backarc basin immediately adjacent and northwest of Fonualei; 3. Dredge igneous rock targets identified on these submarine volcanoes, and the floor of the Fonualei Rifts, in order to recover fresh glassy rock samples for detailed age studies and chemical analysis, particularly of volatile elements and compounds, radiogenic and stable isotopic characteristics. 4. Dredge hydrothermal sulfide-rich and altered rock samples for studies of base and precious metal mineralisation; 5. To explore with the transmissometer/nephelometer-equipped CTD rosette for hydrothermal plume activity in these volcanoes and rifts, and to recover water samples for immediate analysis on board and subsequent shore-based laboratory analysis. Taken from SS11/2004 Voyage Plan.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 12 (mnf:SS200412_VOYAGE)

Topas Sea Trials off Brisbane in December 2004.

RVSS - 2004 Voyage 72 (mnf:SS200472_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor Transit from Hobart to Sydney. Bernadette Heaney and Steve Thomas worked on this voyage to test equipment and acquire data. Underway and Swath Map data were acquired.

2005 (2005)

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200501_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200502_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200503_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200504_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200505_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200506_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS200507_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 08 (mnf:SS200508_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS200509_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2005 Voyage 10 (mnf:SS200510_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

2006 (2006)

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200601_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200602_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200603_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200604_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200605_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200606_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 08 (mnf:SS200608_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS200609_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 10 (mnf:SS200610_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Voyage 11 (mnf:SS200611_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:ST200602_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2006 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:ST200603_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

2007 (2007)

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200701_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200702_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200703_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200704_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200705_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200706_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS200707_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:ST200701_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:ST200702_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:ST200703_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 04 (mnf:ST200704_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 06 (mnf:ST200706_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2007 Transit Voyage 07 (mnf:ST200707_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

2008 (2008)

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200801_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200802_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS200803_VOYAGE)

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS200804_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS200805_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS200806_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS200807_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS200809_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 10 (mnf:SS200810_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Voyage 12 (mnf:SS200812_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:ST200801_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:ST200802_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2008 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:ST200803_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

2009 (2009)

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS200901_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS200902_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2009_T02_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2009_T03_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2009_V03_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2009_V04_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2009_V05_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2009_V06_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

RVSS - 2009 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:ST200901_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval

2010 (2010)

RVSS - 2010 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2010_T01_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval.. Southern Surveyor transit voyage, Hobart - Freemantle, Freemantle - Broome. Australian National Network in Marine Science Student Training Voyage.The voyage took place off the Tasmanian and Australian coast in two legs from Hobart to Broome via Freemantle. The primary objective is to train Australian undergraduate and postgraduate students in ship-based marine science. This objective will be pursued by guiding them to undertake a survey of the Leeuwin Current, starting from its extension into the Southern Ocean and continuing upstream towards its tropical origins off northwest Australia.

RVSS - 2010 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2010_T02_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor Transit Voyage SS2010_T02, Fremantle to Hobart. Scientific Objectives The Benthic Protection Zone (BPZ) of the Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) was proclaimed in 1998, and consists of a 20 nautical-mile-wide strip of seafloor orientated north to south and extending from three nautical miles from the coast to the edge of Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), 200 nautical miles offshore (Figure 1). Within this zone, the benthic assemblages are protected from demersal trawling and other potentially destructive human activities. The BPZ is presently one of fourteen temperate Commonwealth Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Australia. These MPAs form part of an integrated strategy for marine conservation and management through the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas (NRSMPA). At present, no data are available on the benthic biodiversity of the continental slope of the BPZ, or the environmental factors that affect their patterns of distribution and abundance. This research addresses this knowledge gap and aims to provide quantitative information on the regional significance and diversity of the deep-water faunal communities of the BPZ.

RVSS - 2010 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2010_T03_VOYAGE)

Transit voyage Hobart to Sydney Supported by CSIRO-MAR, MNF, and SIMS Scientific Objectives “Next Wave” is a new programme of the National Facility Research Vessel Southern Surveyor to encourage young scientists to try research at sea, inspired by the success of the 2006 voyage led by Dr Moninya Roughan and supported by ARCNESS. Next Wave provides the additional crew as well as a full scientific staff (electronics, hydro, computing etc) on their transit voyages between ports. SIMS has hosted two recent transit voyages Transit SS03-2008 (Aug08, Gladstone to Sydney) and Transit SS01-2009 (Jan09, Sydney to Wellington), with students from all over Australia. The students and leaders work 12 h shifts between 07:00-23:00 to operate the CTD rosette and N70, XBT casts, a well as underway TSG, fluorometer etc, bird/whale counts, etc.

RVSS - 2010 Transit Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2010_T04_VOYAGE)

The voyage provides an ongoing opportunity to use vessel transit time to complete a national mapping of the upper-mid slope seabed with multi-beam mapping and associated ecological interpretation. The upper-slope and mid-slope seabed 100 m to 1500 m depth range, are regions important for regional marine planning, biodiversity and conservation assessments and fisheries habitat mapping.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2010_V01_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor research voyage ss2010_v01 PINTS - primary Productivity induced by Nitrogen and Iron in the Tasman Sea. Role of iron and other micronutrients in controlling primary productivity in the Tasman Sea: bioavailability, biogeochemical cycling and sources. Scientific Objectives -Macro- and micronutrients, mainly iron and nitrate, control oceanic primary productivity, phytoplankton community composition and subsequently carbon uptake and generation of radiatively important gases for climate. Assessing key underlying processes that control primary productivity and carbon export to the ocean’s interior such as micro and macro-nutrient bioavailability is required to fully understand the ocean role in controlling climate change and improve modelling approaches. Indeed, data allowing an accurate modelling of iron bioavailability in the oceans is sparse. Although large dust deposition from eastern Australia to the ocean may occur, the Tasman Sea presents a region of great contrast: northern waters are nutrient poor while southern waters are nutrient rich, but low in iron. Consequently, the input of iron via dust to the northern and southern regions may influence nutrient uptake, primary production and nitrogen fixation. The proposed research voyage will study iron bioavailability, sources and its biogeochemical cycling in the surface waters of the Tasman Sea, along with the role of other micronutrients.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2010_V02_VOYAGE)

The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This biological pump drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will deploy for the first time the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. It will also recover the Pulse-6 mooring that has been making measurements of temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, photosynthetically available radiation, oxygen, total dissolved gases, and phytoplankton fluorescence and backscatter. The Pulse-6 mooring also collects 24 paired water samples, approximately weekly, for later measurement of dissolved nitrate, silicate, inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity. Taken from the MNF Voyage Plan.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2010_V03_VOYAGE)

This is a processed dataset at 1 minute interval. Southern Surveyor research voyage ss2010_v03. Physical forcing of productivity on the Kimberley Shelf. Scientific Objectives We propose to investigate the biogeochemical (BGC) cycling in the shallow seas of the Kimberley shelf. Our conceptual model of the region links primary production to the balance between light limitation (due to turbidity), nutrient supply and water column stability. The interaction of these factors can generate aggregations of zooplankton and larval fish communities at the turbidity maxima. A major focus will be quantifying the nutrient inputs from the tidal forcing at the shelf break, from terrestrial runoff or benthic recycling. Based upon the observations and modelling we will assess the impact of climate variability on nutrient pumping across the shelf break. In addition the interaction between the river outflow and tides on two time scales (single tidal cycle [12h] and spring-neap cycle) will be investigated in terms of physics (including underwater light), chemistry and biology. Taken from the ss2010_v03 Voyage Plan.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2010_V04_VOYAGE)

This is a processed data at 1 minute interval. Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2010_v04. Assessing oceanographic delivery of nutrients to Ningaloo Reef Part I : Autumn Dynamics Scientific Objectives Ningaloo Reef is Australias largest fringing coral reef and the basis of a major tourist industry. Though diverse and delicate, coral reefs (and the controls of their productivity) remain poorly understood. Understanding the interaction of the reef with the surrounding ocean is essential for predicting and managing the impacts of human and climate-induced changes, and therefore for the effective conservation of reefs. This proposal is part of a new initiative aimed at providing a scientific basis for determining the oceanographic distance beyond which industrial developments will not damage a reefs ecological processes. This analysis is essential for maintaining guiding sustainable development in the region. We will determine the seasonal differences in the productivity and delivery of nutrients and particles, by the Leeuwin (LC) and Ningaloo Currents (NC) on the continental shelf off Ningaloo Reef, WA, with special emphasis on identifying coastal upwelling mechanisms driving reef production. This work is part of a 3-year funded ARC project (Waite, Roughan, Pattiaratchi, Kotta) comparing reef-based uptake of nutrients from the surrounding ocean with the shelf oceanography delivering materials to the Ningaloo reef. We have applied for a second voyage in summer 2011/12 to complete the study. Taken from the ss2010_v04 Voyage Plan.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2010_V05_VOYAGE)

The Biological Oceanography of Western Rock Lobster Larvae. Scientific Objectives Lack of knowledge of Western Australia's fisheries oceanography fundamentally limits understanding of the recruitment of Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus, in a fishery worth $200-300 million/year to Australia. The life cycle of P. cygnus includes a planktonic "phyllosoma" larval stage that is transported up to 1500 km offshore via ocean currents. Development continues for approximately 9 - 11 months at sea, before juveniles ("puerulus") return over the shelf to recruit to coastal reef areas. Critical to improving the management of this fishery, which is under intensive review, is appropriate process information about the oceanographic mechanisms driving coastal recruitment. The last three years of puerulus settlement have been low, with the latest (2008/09) settlement the lowest in 40 years of monitoring and not explained by the environmental factors previously identified as affecting settlement. The cause of the low settlement represents a key unknown for managers assessing the sustainability of WA's coastal fisheries, and is likely to be driven by variation in food availability during the open-ocean stage of the phyllosoma larvae. Our study will test the hypothesis that the ocean productivity, particularly the nitrate-driven classic food chain supporting diatoms, copepods and other zooplankton, limits phyllosoma growth rate and survival in their oceanic phase. We will execute this study at, or after the peak, of the autumn/winter plankton bloom in the Leeuwin Current, with the aim of quantifying oceanographic parameters crucial to modelling rock lobster larval dynamics.

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2010_V06_VOYAGE)

Continental slope and shelf processes along the South West region of Western Australia during winter. Scientific Objectives Define the structure and in particular the volume flux of the Leeuwin Current (LC), including the geostrophic inflow Define the structure and the volume flux of the Leeuwin Undercurrent (LU) Examine the dynamics of Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) spatial extent, transport volume, nutrient fluxes Determine the interaction of the LC, coastal currents, DSWC and primary production dynamics during winter Obtain water samples to calibrate the bio-optical WET Labs sensors on ocean gliders

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS2010_V07_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2010_V07. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies south-west of Tasmania(47°S, hundred and 40°E). Scientific Objectives The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This “biological pump” drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This Voyage will: i) deploy the Pulse-7 mooring ii) recover the SAZ-12 (and redeploy as SAZ-13) deep ocean sediment trap mooring iii) service the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring deployed on SS1002 in April 2010 iv) carry out underway and CTD based measurements v) deploy autonomous profiling floats and an ocean glider

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 08 (mnf:SS2010_V08_VOYAGE)

Krill in 3-D - Vertical stratification and spatial distribution of krill communities in the East Australian Current. Scientific Objectives Marine predator-prey relationships should remain within certain boundary conditions (Michener and Kaufman, 2007), but few examples consider interspecific interactions in planktonic communities in pelagic marine ecosystems (Hairston et al., 1960; Schlosser, 1982). These ecosystems are often structured with high species diversity at lower and higher trophic levels, but a lower diversity of secondary consumers at mid trophic levels (i.e. a wasp-waist ecosystem, Bakun, 2006), such as pelagic fishes. Euphausiids (krill) likely represent an invertebrate analogue to pelagic fishes in these systems (Bakun, 2006), but this concept is yet to be explored. Competition between larval euphausiids and abundant primary consumers capable of dominating ecosystem resources (i.e. salps) likely control the progression toward a wasp-waist structure, and these competitive interactions are potentially mediated by connection between epipelagic and mesopelagic food webs. The epipelagic and mesopelagic zones of the ocean are defined as 0 to100 m (euphotic zone) and 100 to 1000 m depth respectively. Greater than 90% of the organic matter exported from the epipelagic zone is remineralised into nutrients, microelements and CO2 in the mesopelagic zone, and returned to the surface on decadal scales or less (Karl et al., 2008). The mesopelagic zone therefore significantly dampens the downward transfer of organic matter to the deep ocean, and acts as a positive feedback to global warming. Despite their importance in understanding the efficiency of the biological pump, little is known about the processes that control the remineralisation of CO2 in the mesopelagic zone, or its regional variation. These are considered to be related to the structure of, and relationship between, the epipelagic and mesopel

RVSS - 2010 Voyage 09 (mnf:SS2010_V09_VOYAGE)

Impact of the East Australian Current on water chemistry, bio-optical properties and coastal primary productivity in the NSW region. Scientific Objectives The East Australia Current is the single-most important factor affecting regional productivity along the eastern seaboard of Australia, yet we do not have a good measure of its strength, variability or a complete understanding of its biological impact. This voyage seeks to better understand the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf in the area north and south of the EAC separation zone off NSW, an important region supporting almost 50% of Australians living near the coast. High-resolution data will be collected to characterise the relationship between physical oceanography, water chemistry (e.g. nutrient distribution and light availability) and primary and secondary productivities. Phytoplankton are responsible for >40% of global photosynthesis and are the energetic ‘base’ of marine foodwebs (Falkowski and Raven 2007). Their productivity is generally determined by the provision of nutrients and light and the degree of herbivorous grazing. It is therefore critical to understand these inter-relationships in order to parameterise this complex and dynamic marine environment for biogeochemical and ecosystem models. This project will use traditional as well as innovative techniques to assess productivity (14-C uptake and bio-optical and fluorescence-based estimates of production) as well as grazing losses. In addition, bio-optical biogeochemical quantities will be measured in-situ and provide much needed data for the wider NSW scientific community to improve remotely-sensed estimates of ocean colour (chlorophyll-a biomass). Shifts in the composition and function of bacterial communities will be assessed using metagenomic approaches and will be related to specific oceanographic features and phytoplankton community characteristics. Finally, nutrient and organic source (fulvic acid) enrichment

2011 (2011)

RVSS - 2011 Research Charter 01 (mnf:SS2011_C01_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor research voyage charter ss2011_c02.Tsunami Detection Buoy Maintenance for Australian Tsunami Warning System (ATWS). Scientific Objectives: The Australian Tsunami Warning System (ATWS) is a national effort involving the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Bureau), Geoscience Australia (GA) and Emergency Management Australia (EMA) to provide a comprehensive tsunami warning system capable of delivering timely and effective tsunami warnings to the Australian population by 2009. The project also supports international efforts to establish an Indian Ocean tsunami warning system, and contributes to the facilitation of tsunami warnings for the South West Pacific. Due to the complexity and uncertainty as to whether an undersea earthquake has the potential to generate a tsunami, the observation of sea levels is a critical factor in verifying whether a tsunami has actually been generated. The use of actual sea level observations, as compared with reliance on seismic observations alone, therefore helps to significantly reduce the risk of false tsunami warnings being issued. All Australian-owned buoys, as well as deep-ocean buoys operated by other countries in the Australian region, provide critical data to Australia's tsunami warning system.

RVSS - 2011 Gear Trial Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2011_E01_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval. 1.Winch Testing(CMAN2 8.1 )All winches: test operation; spooling; and controls (dogbox, cathouse, remote controls, bridge controls) by paying out and retrieving while underway. 2.Winch Monitoring Testing(CMAN2 8.1)-Operational testing of winch monitoring system 3.Electrical thermoghaphic test -Thermography of Main Switchboards and associated Control Panels. 4.CTD Winch testing - One CTD test cast will be undertaken in conjunction with testing of the two CTD winches systems ,the second CTD winch will be tested with a small weight. 5.Acoustics Calibration - EM300 and Doppler log calibration will be performed through a series of 6 runs at the designated site. 6.Main Engine and Turbo Charger (CMAN2 2.1)- A series of controlled power increases and inspections will be undertaken in accordance with Main Engine Manufactures testing guidelines.Testing of Main Engine 7.Met Station Testing - Operational testing of the Met system 8.Various DAP systems testing - Operational testing of various ship’s scientific systems will be carried following maintenance during the port period. These will be carried out opportunistically and should be transparent to vessel operations. 9.Air and Water greenhouse sensor System. Setup and testing of underway air /water greenhouse sensor system

RVSS - 2011 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2011_T01_VOYAGE)

2,000 years of oceanic history offshore Eastern Australia. Scientific objectives -This project will generate high-resolution records of sea-surface temperature [SST] changes that have occurred in the Tasman Sea over the last two millennia. A variety of innovative proxies will be employed and used for comparison with lake records on land. International collaboration is a feature of this program, linking with the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research [NIOZ] to determine past sea-surface temperatures and wind-induced upwelling conditions using specific organic compounds recovered in deep-sea cores, and with the marine radio-isotope laboratory in Bordeaux, France, to accurately date cores over short time scales. De Deckker is to collect samples using a multicorer and a student is to go to NIOZ to analyse the samples under the supervision of Dr Schouten. De Deckker will be assisted by both a research assistant and a PhD student at ANU to extract microfossils and date some of them using the radiocarbon technique. Schmidt is to return to France with some of the samples obtained with the multicorer to date them in her radio-isotope laboratory. Rathburn is to subsample several of the cores with his postgraduate student to study the live infaunal microbiota that live in the upper few cm of the sea floor.

RVSS - 2011 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2011_T02_VOYAGE)

Towards an understanding of mid-trophic biomass, distribution, variability and energetics in ocean ecosystems. Scientific Objectives: The water column comprises more than 90% of the earths living space and its deep water component is probably the largest and least-known major faunal group on Earth despite its obvious importance at the global scale (Robison, 2009). Biological communities in these habitats are dominated by meso-zooplankton and micronekton (fishes, crustaceans, squids and gelatinous zooplankton, 2-20 cm length) that are crucial to the foodwebs of pelagic and demersal predators (e.g. Bulman et al. 2001. The micronekton of the ocean is involved in a vertical migration from deep to shallow depths and, again, while little understood, probably accounts for the bulk of global ocean biomass. This ecological system is under threat from a broad range of influences including climate change and carbon dioxide (ocean acidification) (Robison, 2009). The Tasman Sea is a high priority region as it is predicted to be a global temperature change hot spot (Cai et al., 2005). This large predicted temperature shift in the Tasman Sea will have major impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem from biogeochemistry, plankton, micronecton and nekton to depths in excess of 400 m. During this voyage we will be refining methods to interpret basin scale acoustic sampling with targeted mid-water net sampling and multi-frequency acoustic and optical sensing. This refinement will contribute to the IMOS bio-acoustic sampling program.

RVSS - 2011 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2011_T03_VOYAGE)

This is the RVSS underway processed data at 1 minute interval Next Wave. The distribution of pelagic and benthic fauna along Australia's southern seaboard Scientific Objectives: The focus of this program is to give students a taste of what it is like to live and work on an ocean going research vessel and to expose them to some of the different sampling methods and equipment that are used in oceanographic research. The students will have two (quasi) scientific aims, each of which will contribute to our knowledge about Australian waters, as follows: 1) to characterise the macro-fauna inhabiting the benthos at range of depths along Australia's southern coast; 2) to investigate regional surface productivity (POM) and the distribution of pelagic organisms along the southern shelf of Australia. For Kloser, the voyage provides an ongoing opportunity to use vessel transit time to complete a national mapping of the upper-mid slope seabed with multi-beam mapping and associated ecological interpretation. For Reisser, the voyage will facilitate her ongoing research on the distribution, abundance and composition of floating marine debris (FMD) around Australia. Marine debris has become a major hazard to marine life and is also leading to aesthetic degradation, economic losses and human health hazards. At present, limited data exist to quantify and explain the geographical range and content of marine debris in our oceans. Extracted from the voyage plan MNF_ss2011_t03_plan.pdf.

RVSS - 2011 Transit Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2011_T04_VOYAGE)

2,000 years of oceanic history offshore southern Australia in combination with National upper slope seabed multi-beam mapping and ecological interpretation Scientific Objectives: Project 1: PI: Prof. Patrick De Deckker This project will generate high-resolution records of sea-surface temperature [SST] changes that have occurred offshore southern Australlia over the last two millennia. A variety of innovative proxies will be employed and used for comparison with lake records on land. International collaboration is a feature of this program, linking with the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research [NIOZ] to determine past sea-surface temperatures and wind-induced upwelling conditions using specific organic compounds recovered in deep-sea cores, and with the marine radio-isotope laboratory in Bordeaux, France, to accurately date cores over short time scales. Project 2: PI: Dr Rudy Kloser Spatial management is becoming increasingly common and Australia leads the world in developing a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas (NRSMPA) by 2012. However, the NRSMPA by itself will not be adequate to manage and protect the marine environment and spatial management of areas outside the NRSMPA will be required. This places an increased demand on scientists to know the physical structure of those areas and their value to biodiversity and ecosystem function. Extracted from Voyage plan please read plan for full description.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2011_V01_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor Research Voyage SS2011_v01. Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies south-west of Tasmania(47°S, hundred and 40°E). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will recover the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-1) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere. It will also recover the Pulse-7 mooring that has been making measurements of temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, photosynthetically available radiation, oxygen, total dissolved gases, and phytoplankton fluorescence and backscatter. The Pulse-7 mooring also collects 24 paired water samples, approximately weekly, for later measurement of dissolved nitrate, silicate, inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2011_V02_VOYAGE)

This is the RVSS underway processed data at 1 minute interval. Australian-New Zealand GEOTRACES GP13 Australasian GEOTRACES: A collaborative international study of the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes along a zonal section (GP13) of the Pacific Ocean east of Australia. Scientific Objectives: This project will undertake an integrated oceanographic transect and dust monitoring program for iron, other trace elements, and their isotopes (TEIs) along the western end of the GP13 zonal section (~30oS) east of Australia. Our innovative measurement and analysis strategy will identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key TEIs in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. We will use a series of novel techniques to fingerprint the sources, sinks and internal cycling of TEIs, focussing on the atmospheric delivery of irondust to the remote ocean. This project will provide maximum scientific reward for evaluating future global change, and has strong international collaborative activity under the auspices of the international GEOTRACES (www.geotraces.org) program. Outcomes of this project will be an improved ability to predict climate-driven changes in the supply and biogeochemistry of trace elements in ocean waters around Australia. Our research will quantify the importance of atmospheric dust for marine ecosystem health, help inform Government policy on ocean iron fertilisation as a carbon sequestration strategy, and provide a broad basis for evaluating future climatic changes in coupled atmospheric – ocean processes. Extracted from voyage plan, please read plan for full details.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2011_V03_VOYAGE)

The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Extracted from voyage plan, please read plan for full detials.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2011_V04_VOYAGE)

Biological Oceanography of Western Rock Lobster Larvae – Part 2. Scientific Objectives: Lack of knowledge of Western Australia’s fisheries oceanography fundamentally limits understanding of the recruitment of Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus, in a fishery worth $200-300 million/year to Australia. The life cycle of P. cygnus includes a planktonic “phyllosoma” larval stage that is transported up to 1500 km offshore via ocean currents. Development continues for approximately 9 - 11 months at sea, before juveniles (“puerulus”)return over the shelf to recruit to coastal reef areas. Critical to improving the management of this fishery, which is under intensive review, is appropriate process information about the oceanographic mechanisms driving coastal recruitment. The last three years of puerulus settlement have been low, with the latest (2008/09) settlement the lowest in 40 years of monitoring and not explained by the environmental factors previously identified as affecting settlement. The cause of the low settlement represents a key unknown for managers assessing the sustainability of WA’s coastal fisheries, and is likely to be driven by variation in food availability during the open-ocean stage of the phyllosoma larvae. Our study will test the hypothesis that the ocean productivity, particularly the nitrate-driven classic food chain supporting diatoms, copepods and other zooplankton, limits phyllosoma growth rate and survival in their oceanic phase. We will execute this study at, or after the peak, of the autumn/winter plankton bloom in the Leeuwin Current, with the aim of quantifying oceanographic parameters crucial to modelling rock lobster larval dynamics.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2011_V05_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor Research Voyage ss2011_v05. The influence of natural hydrocarbon migration and seepage on the geological and biological systems of the offshore northern Perth Basin. Scientific Objectives 1. Map sites of natural hydrocarbon seepage in the offshore northern Perth Basin (Jones,Kennard, Ross, Greinert) On the basis of: ¿ acoustic signatures in the water column, shallow subsurface and on the seabed; ¿ geochemical signatures in rock and sediment samples and the water column, and; ¿ biological signatures on the seabed: document the spatial distribution of seepage sites and characterise the nature of the seepage at these sites (gas vs oil, macroseepage vs microseepage; palaeo vs modern day seepage). 2. Investigate generic structural controls on natural hydrocarbon seepage in the offshore northern Perth Basin, to determine the leaking versus sealing nature of individual faults within linked fault systems (Jones, Kennard). Quantify seepage indicators over sealing structures through surveying the seabed over known oil and gas accumulations, then compare and contrast the results with indicators of seepage over structures with residual hydrocarbon columns that are known to have leaked or be leaking, then use these controls to assess the leaking or sealing nature of other structures in a variety of environments. 3. Assess the influence and potential future impact of natural hydrocarbon seepage on geological and biological systems and anthropogenic activities in Australia¿s southwest margin (Jones, Heap, Greinert). Determine whether the level of natural hydrocarbon seepage within the offshore northern Perth Basin: a) is likely to impact climate change due to methane release in shallow water, b) is a control on benthic habitat distribution, c) presents a natural hazard such as for drilling or slope stability, or d) has the potential to change or influence petroleum prospectivity.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2011_V06_VOYAGE)

The Perth Abyssal Plain: Understanding Eastern Gondwana Break-up Scientific Objectives The objectives of this voyage are to investigate; 1. The crustal nature of the Gulden Draak Ridge, Batavia Knoll, and Dirck Hartog ridge -continental and/or volcanic - in order to further constrain plate tectonic models of the early separation between India and Australia and also to understand the interaction between the seafloor-spreading system and volcanism related to theKerguelen hotspot. This objective relates primarily to Nathan Daczko and Jacqueline Halpin. 2. The age and formation history of the 'de Gonneville Triangle'. This piece of oceanic crust is located at what was the triple junction of rifting between Australia-India-Antarctica. Understanding the de Gonneville Triangle is especially important because prior to Australia-Antarctic break-up it was immediately adjacent to the Enderby Basin, and the two basins should reveal the same magnetic anomaly patterns but current interpretations reveal considerable discrepancies. This objective relates primarily to Joanne Whittaker, Dietmar Müller and Simon Williams. 3. The age distribution of oceanic crust across both the east and west Perth Abyssal Plain.Acquiring ridge-perpendicular magnetic anomaly profiles are crucial in order to constrain the early spreading history between India and Australia and the prebreakup fit between India-Antarctica and Australia. Of particular importance is the oceanic crust located southwest of the Dirck Hartog Ridge. Sampling in the Perth Abyssal Plain region will help to resolve uncertainties regarding the early spreading history and the full-fit of the India-Australia-Antarctica triple plate system. This objective relates primarily to Joanne Whittaker, Dietmar Müller and Simon Williams. Taken from Voyage plan, please read plan for full details.

RVSS - 2011 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS2011_V07_VOYAGE)

Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) observations for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This "biological pump" drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. This voyage will deploy the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS-2) mooring to obtain in-air and in-sea measurements to better understand the exchange of heat, moisture, and gases between the ocean and atmosphere.

2012 (2012)

RVSS - 2012 Gear Trial Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2012_E01_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval. 1.Winch Testing(CMAN2 8.1 )All winches: test operation; spooling; and controls (dogbox, cathouse, remote controls, bridge controls) by paying out and retrieving while underway. 2.Winch Monitoring Testing(CMAN2 8.1)-Operational testing of winch monitoring system 3.Electrical thermoghaphic test -Thermography of Main Switchboards and associated Control Panels. 4.CTD Winch testing - One CTD test cast will be undertaken in conjunction with testing of the two CTD winches systems ,the second CTD winch will be tested with a small weight. 5.Acoustics Calibration - EM300 and Doppler log calibration will be performed through a series of 6 runs at the designated site. 6.Main Engine and Turbo Charger (CMAN2 2.1)- A series of controlled power increases and inspections will be undertaken in accordance with Main Engine Manufactures testing guidelines.Testing of Main Engine 7.Met Station Testing - Operational testing of the Met system 8.Various DAP systems testing - Operational testing of various ship’s scientific systems will be carried following maintenance during the port period. These will be carried out opportunistically and should be transparent to vessel operations. 9.Air and Water greenhouse sensor System. Setup and testing of underway air /water greenhouse sensor system

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2012_T01_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor SS2012_T01. XBT fall-rate experiments using XBT/CTD intercomparisons. Scientific Objectives XBT/CTD intercomparison (Rebecca Cowley): We propose a simple and reliable experiment to assess the fall-rate and temperature biases of modern XBTs manufactured by Lockheed Martin Sippican (the major global supplier). We aim to collect concurrent temperature profiles form both XBT systems and high accuracy CTD systems. We have some old XBT probes which we would like to deploy to compare with modern probes. We plan to address the questions: 1. Do modern XBTs have temperature and depth biases? 2. Do older XBTs (circa 2001-2003) show similar temperature and depth biases to those found in previous work? 3. Can we use depth soundings to check depth accuracy, and how do these results compare with the CTD/XBT intercomparison method? Piggy-back Projects Rudy Kloser (CMAR) Rudy’s project is SWATH mapping of the 200m to 1000m depth range, particularly along the northern edge of Bass Canyon. Julia Reisser (PhD student, CMAR) Julia’s project is looking at the sources, distribution and fate of marine debris. Sampling several times per day using a neuston net. Clare Murphy (UoW) Clare’s project is looking at transect measurements of greenhouse gases in the marine atmosphere.

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2012_T02_VOYAGE)

This is a underway dataset with 1 minute time interval Southern Surveyor Transit Voyage ss2012_T02. Great Barrier Reef phase shift: Gardner Banks to Gardner Reef On a global scale, coral reefs are experiencing a period of rapid change. The world has effectively lost 19% of the original area of coral reefs since 1950, with the loss predicted of 35% of coral reefs in the next 40 years (Wilkinson, 2008). About 46% of coral reefs are regarded as healthy except for currently unpredictable global climate threats, which includes the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The vulnerability of coral reef habitats to climate change is high as scleractinian corals are highly sensitive to increasing sea temperature and ocean acidification (Marshall and Johnson, 2007). The increased frequency of coral bleaching due to further increases in sea surface temperature (SST) will cause a decline in coral cover, increases in algal dominance, and shifts towards species that are more thermally tolerant. Exceptions to this pattern may occur at the southern limits of the GBR where tropical carbonates transition into temperate carbonates. The observed shift of average marine climate zones south by >200 km since 1950 (Lough, 2008) could potentially result in the GBR extending south, causing an algal to coral phase shift as coral settlement follows the changing environmental gradient.

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2012_T03_VOYAGE)

MNF Southern Surveyor RV ss2012_t03. Predicting the sources, distribution and fate of floating marine debris. Scientific Objectives: Marine debris has become a major hazard to marine life through ingestion and entanglement and is also leading to aesthetic degradation, economic losses and human health hazards. The increase in amounts of marine debris can be attributed to at least three factors: (1) plastics replaced natural fibers in the manufacture of many everyday items; (2) plastics are often less expensive than the materials they replace,thereby decreasing incentives to reuse or recycle items; (3) there are simply more ships and coastal residents that can lose or discard materials. Monitoring studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of governments’ actions in reducing the overall amount of marine debris as well as certain types of debris of particular concern, such as fishing gear and microplastics. For the first time, floating marine debris (FMD) will be systematically sampled in oceanic waters close to east coast of Australia. This voyage will provide us the opportunity to collect samples over a broad range of latitudes. These data will be useful to test a hypothesis recently proposed by marine researchers: FMD concentrations tend to be higher at subtropical latitudes. The general aim of this project is to estimate FMD composition and concentration (pieces/km2) at different locations around Australia. (Extract from the voyage plan, please see plan for full details.)

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2012_T05_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval Transit from Hobart to Fremantle

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2012_T06_VOYAGE)

This is a underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2012_t06. Marine debris distribution in the Eastern Indian Ocean and Timor Sea. Scientific Objectives Marine Debris Surveys (Chris Wilcox,CMAR) We plan to address the following questions: 1.What is the density of marine debris in the oceanic regions around Australia? 2.What is the composition of marine debris in the regions sampled? 3.What fraction is anthropogenic in origin? We also hope to evaluate the use of an aerostat as a tool for collecting low level aerial images from behind the vessel. However this is conditional on further development of the appropriate camera with our technological collaborator. Plankton Surveys (Dave McLeod, CMAR) To collect plankton using a CPR along a transect between Broome and Darwin to improve our understanding of plankton abundance and distribution in the north west area of Australia. Measurements of Nitrogen Fixation (Eric Raes, UWA) Collect physical and biological data using the ship’s conductivity – temperature – depth profiler from the surface and the oxygen minimum feature in the photic zone at stations between Broome and Darwin, particularly targeting eddies where possible.

RVSS - 2012 Transit Voyage 07 (mnf:SS2012_T07_VOYAGE)

This is underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2012_t07. 1) Epibenthic communities of northern Australia (Belinda Alvarez de Glasby(MAGNT)). 2) An examination of the microbial oceanography of north-eastern Australia (Martina Doblin (UTS). Scientific Objectives (1) 1. To use a remotely operated underwater video camera (ROV) to explore two areas along the transit voyage track of RV Southern Surveyor from Darwin to Cairns for discovery of habitat-forming and bioactive epibenthic fauna. 2. To collect epibenthic fauna using a sled thereby ground-truthing the video data. 3. To sort, photograph, document and prepare taxonomic vouchers of the samples captured with the benthic sled. 4. To deposit taxonomic vouchers of all samples at MAGNT for curation, registration and distribution to the appropriate taxonomic experts for taxonomic identification. 5. To prepare and freeze suitable samples for screening of bioactive compounds and accession them at the AIMS Bioresources library for future export to the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) laboratories or for research on marine natural products. 6. To correlate biodiversity measure obtained from the survey with available physical datasets from GA (e.g. geomorphology, sediment grain-size). Scientific Objectives (2) The major biotic players in controlling the function of the global ocean are microorganisms. To fully understand the basic biological and chemical dynamics of ocean ecosystems, the identity and role of the microbial assemblages inhabiting seawater must be accurately defined. The proposed research will provide an important new platform for understanding the ecology and biogeochemistry of this region. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to: 1. Provide a first characterisation of the taxonomy, diversity and biogeography of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms inhabiting Australia's NE ocean waters; 2. Assess the physiological and biogeochemical potential of the microbial communities inhabiting this region; 3. Characterise the light climate to define optical niches for growth of marine primary producers and undertake manipulative experiments to examine optical regulation of carbon fixation; 4. Characterise the eco-physiology and fine-scale community structure of abundant microbial primary producers, including Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and photosynthetic pico-eukaryotes; 5. Establish and test new microbial oceanography experimentation protocols, while also providing valuable training to students and early career researchers in oceanographic research practices. Please note this is a part extract, see Voyage plan for complete details.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2012_V01_VOYAGE)

This is a QC underway dataset with 1 minute time interval Southern Surveyor Voyage ss2012-V01. Sustained Monitoring of the East Australian Current:Mass, Heat and Freshwater Transports. Scientific Objectives The East Australian Current (EAC) is a complex and highly energetic western boundary system in the south-western Pacific off eastern Australia. It provides both the western boundary of the South Pacific gyre and the linking element between the Pacific and Indian Ocean gyres. This voyage will deploy an array of full-depth current meter and property (CTD) moorings from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane (26oS). At this location the EAC, north of the high eddy variability, the approaching its maximum strength and its flow is relatively uniform and coherent. The aim of this observing system is to capture the mean and time-varying flow of the EAC.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2012_V02_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval The northern Lau Basin is a region of rapidly extending and newly-forming crust, seamed by multiple zones of sea-floor spreading, rifting, and faulting consequent to the clockwise rotation of the Tonga Arc away from the Fiji-Lau Ridge (Fig. 1a). Demise of the former Vitiaz Arc has led to the establishment of a new Australian-Pacific plate boundary that wraps around the north end of Fiji, and connects with the Tonga Trench via a set of ridges (e.g., Futuna Spreading Centre, Northwest Lau Spreading Centre), rifts (e.g., Rochambeau Rifts), transform faults, and extension zones (Fig. 1b). Voyage ss2012-v02 will explore via a west to east reconnaissance of these tectonic elements, the accompanying magmatism and hydrothermal activity. The principal investigators and their shipboard scientific colleagues will collaborate in studies of the petrology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks (including major and trace element abundances, isotopic characteristics), and water column geochemical compositions. Part extract from Voyage plan, please read plan for full details.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2012_V03_VOYAGE)

SS2012_V03.Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) Facility 3. Southern Ocean Time Series (SOTS) moorings for climate and carbon cycle studies southwest of Tasmania (47ºS, 140ºE). The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This “biological pump” drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the NCRIS IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Part extract from voyage plan, please read plan for full details.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2012_V04_VOYAGE)

This is the underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2012_v04. Observations of remarkable eastward flows and eddies in the subtropical southeast Indian Ocean. Scientific Objectives: Our work will include a suite of CTD, microstructure, surface drifter and float observations, and a mooring that will contribute to answering a first-order gap in our understanding of the large-scale currents in the subtropical southeast Indian Ocean. The presence of a near-surface, eastward flow across the South Indian Ocean is a remarkable aspect of the upper-ocean circulation because it flows against the westward direction from Ekman and Sverdrup theory for this region. However the underlying mechanisms, driving the eastward surface currents and their eventual interaction with the Leeuwin Current and down welling remains unclear. Our primary goal in this work is to make new observations of the physical and biogeochemical structure of the eastward flows in the region between existing observations and the Australian coast, where their fate is unknown. This region is filled with energetic eddies generated by the Leeuwin Current. Our observations will also provide insight into the nature of the interaction of these eddies with the circulation and productivity of the interior Indian Ocean. Dynamical understanding of the Indian Ocean circulation is central to the outstanding problem in ocean climate projections of correctly including surface processes to project the spatial patterns of heat uptake, steric sea-level rise, and storage of carbon dioxide. Piggy-back Projects include : Upper-ocean mixing estimates using a VMP-200 microstructure profiler, Nitrogen uptake in the eastward flows feeding the Leeuwin Current System, Phytoplankton dynamics in the eastward flows feeding the Leeuwin Current System and Offshore sources of high nitrate, low oxygen upper ocean waters. Part extract from voyage plan, please read plan for full details.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2012_V05_VOYAGE)

This is a QCed underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2012_v05. IMOS: Sustained observations of the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait components of the Indonesian Throughflow. Scientific Objectives: The Indonesian seas are the only major low-latitude connection in the global oceans (Figure 1). This connection permits the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean, known as the Indonesian Throughflow. The Indonesian Throughflow actually consists of several filaments of flow that occupy different depth levels and weave their way through the complex island geometry comprised of broad shallow shelves and deep basins. The largest Indonesian seas are: the shallow Java Sea, the deeper Flores, Banda and Timor Seas, and the shallow Arafura Sea. The Indonesian Throughflow has a major influence on both the climate of the Indian Ocean and the global oceans. It is an important pathway for the transfer of climate signals and their anomalies around the world’s oceans. While the heat and fresh water carried by the Indonesian Throughflow are known to affect the basin budgets of both the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the Indonesian Throughflow is poorly simulated in ocean circulation, seasonal prediction and climate models.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2012_V06_VOYAGE)

This is a processed underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2012_v06. Tectonic framework for the easternmost Coral Sea and northern extent of the Lord Howe hotspot. Scientific Objectives The main objectives of this voyage are to investigate: 1. The nature of the crust (continental/volcanic/oceanic) underlying Rennell Island, East Rennell Island Ridge, South Rennell Fracture Zone and d’Entrecasteaux Zone by directly sampling and comparing the basement from each of these submarine plateaus and ridges. This objective relates primarily to Sebastein Meffre, Steven Micklethwaite, Julien Collot and Maria Seton. 2. The age and structure of the Santa Cruz/Torres and d’Entrecasteaux Basins through magnetic profiling and explore whether they share a spatial and temporal relationship. We will also explore whether the basins formed in a back-arc setting related to Cretaceous or Eocene subduction or whether they preserve a piece of oceanic crust from the Panthalassa Ocean. This objective relates primarily to Maria Seton, Dietmar Muller, Christian Heine and Julien Collot. 3. The extension of the Lord Howe hotspot trail into the eastern Coral Sea, north of the Bellona Plateau by directly sampling extinct volcanic edifices and exploring whether the West Torres Plateau is capped by volcanics. This objective relates primarily to Sebastein Meffre and Maria Seton.

RVSS - 2012 Voyage 07 (mnf:SS2012_V07_VOYAGE)

This is underway dataset with 1 minute time interval Southern Surveyor SS2012_V07. Tasmantid Seamounts: volcanic, tectonic, and carbonate record. Scientific Objectives : The Tasmantid seamounts are a chain of underwater hotspot-derived intraplate volcanoes situated 150 to 600 km east of the Australian mainland (Figure 1). Because of the long record of hotspot-derived volcanic activity - spanning more than 2000 km and >40 million years - the seamounts provide an exceptional and largely untapped record of Australian plate velocity. Deciphering this record by obtaining volcanic samples suitable for high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology is a major objective of this expedition (Cohen, Vasconcelos, Knesel). Such volcanic samples will also record the chemical evolution of a long-lived mantle plume, and chemical analyses will reveal information on mantle reservoirs, melting, magma diversification, and the contrasting contamination effects of thinned continental lithosphere in the north versus oceanic lithosphere in the south (Knesel, Arculus). Geophysical data will also be collected over the seamounts and oceanic crust of the Tasman Sea to help study the tectonic history and lithospheric structure of the region. The larger seamounts are variably capped by fossil and modern coral reefs and/or other carbonate sediments (Webb). Although not targeted specifically, where carbonate materials are recovered with the volcanic rocks this material will provide a key biologic and climatic record of the seas east of Australia. Morphologic analysis of the seamounts will allow identification of volcanic and coral-growth geomorphology, as well as any mass wasting deposits (Cohen, Webb).

2013 (2013)

RVSS - 2013 Charter Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2013_C02_VOYAGE)

AMNF RV Southern Surveyor - Research Charter ss2013_C02. RV Southern Surveyor Research Charter - Great Australian Bight. Scientific Objectives: Study of benthic ecosystems and natural hydrocarbon seepage in deep (200-3,000 m) waters of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) are part of the focus of a research program (the GAB Science Plan). The Science Plan aims to describe key elements of marine ecosystems across the GAB, including in the deep central GAB area associated with oil and gas exploration activity. Characterising benthic ecosystem structure and function is important because there are virtually no existing benthic biological data beyond continental shelf depths (< 200 m) in the GAB. Conservation values attributed to Commonwealth Marine Reserves (CMR) spanning wide depth ranges are untested on the mid- and lower continental slope, while oil and gas lease areas extend across the GAB Marine Park (GAB MP). The benthic ecosystem description will be strengthened with context provided by an improved understanding of hydrocarbon seeps and migration pathways in the GAB. The objectives of several projects within the Science Plan will be partly met by results from this voyage.

RVSS - 2013 Transit Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2013_T01_VOYAGE)

AMNF RV Southern Surveyor - Research Transit Voyage. Oceanographic Methods training unit- (part of the Master of Marine and Antarctic Science degree program- IMAS, University of Tasmania) Scientific Objectives This voyage will provide students with experience at sea and training in standard methods in chemical and biological oceanography The main objectives are to have students (after completing this voyage) able to: - plan a scientific voyage at sea - describe how different scientific instruments work, their area of use, limitations, and nature of collected data - analyze, interpret and present data from a subset of oceanic instrumentation - write a scientific report - understand the working routines onboard a research vessel such as the Southern Surveyor

RVSS - 2013 Transit Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2013_T02_VOYAGE)

AMNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_t02. The benthic fauna of the Great Australian Bight Scientific Objectives: The focus of this program is to give students a taste of what it is like to live and work on an ocean going research vessel and to expose them to some of the different sampling methods and equipment that are used in oceanographic research. The students will have three quasi scientific aims as follows: 1) to sample and characterise the benthic communities in the Great Australian Bight (GAB); 2) to investigate surface and water column productivity along Australia’s southern seaboard; 3) to map Australia’s seafloor. The students will be involved in all aspects of the research – sorting and curating the fauna – milking the rosette/changing the filters and measuring the dissolved oxygen and salinity – operating and monitoring the swath. Outside of sampling stations and designated tasks, students will take it in turns to watch for marine mammals and we may supplement the sampling and research with a series of lectures and practicals utilising the material/data collected. For Keith, the voyage provides an ongoing opportunity to use vessel transit time to complete a national mapping of the upper-mid slope seabed with multi-beam mapping and associated ecological interpretation. The upper-slope and mid-slope seabed 100 m to 1500 m depth range, are regions important for regional marine planning, biodiversity and conservation assessments and fisheries habitat mapping. The swath mapping will be integrated as a part of the student activities and there is a 12h portion of the transit dedicated to targeting some canyons off Esperance and filling the swath track adjacent to the 500 m isobath. For Tanner & Williams the voyage provides an opportunity to gain further specimens and add a temporal aspect to their study of the epifaunal assemblages (benthic) of the GAB Marine Park and its surrounds. The GAB is a unique ecosystem, with diversity similar to the Great Barrier Reef, and a much higher proportion of endemic species, but only a fraction of the scientific effort.

RVSS - 2013 Transit Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2013_T03_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval AMNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_t03. Ship time on this transit voyage was allocated to four programs listed below with the Scientific Objectives: 1. Microbial oceanography of northern Australia – primary program,lead by UTS 1-1. To determine the significance, diversity and seasonality of nitrogen fixation by microorganisms in the nitrogen limited waters of NW and NE Australia (Lauren Messer). 1-2. To examine the expression of light harvesting genes in phototrophic bacteria in different optical climates in the northern coastal and oceanic region of Australia (Jaume Biblioni). 1-3. To understand the biogeochemical role of eukaryotes with respect to N and Si uptake processes. 1-4. To understand the diversity and biogeochemical role of eukaryotes with respect to N uptake processes. 1-5. To reveal the species composition, photophysiology and carbon fixation of phytoplankton in optically complex coastal and ocean waters surrounding Northern Australia. 1-6. To obtain a new understanding of the processes involved in marine snow formation at different depths within the pristine waters of Northern Australia. 2. Global drifter program – lead by Dr Kiki Dethmers at NAMRA-AIMS, Scientific Objectives 2-1. To determine the direction and velocity of subsurface currents across the Timor and Arafura Seas 2-2. To obtain baseline parameters for developing a dispersal prediction model of derelict fishing gear 2-3. To observe (and potentially retrieve) derelict fishing gear, in particular ‘ghost nets’ 2-4. To record and identify marine wildlife sightings across the Arafura and Timor Seas 3. Swath mapping around the GBR, lead by Dr Robin Beaman (JCU) and Dr Gordon Keith(CSIRO) (1) To determine the full spatial distribution of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf edge submerged reefs, i.e. can we identify their northern and southern limits? (2) To understand the detailed geomorphology of the submerged reefs and shelf edge features at these northern and southern limits. (3) To collect swath data in those parts of the upper-slope that currently have no swath data. 4. Greenhouse gas measurement, lead by Dagmar Kubistin at UoW The project aims to improve our understanding of the sources, sinks and background concentrations of key greenhouse gases in the Southern Hemisphere. (1) Make continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone as the RV Southern Surveyor travels along the chosen transect; (2) Assimilate measured data into a variety of atmospheric chemical transport, inverse and statistical models to improve our knowledge and understanding of atmospheric greenhouse gases and their sources and sinks.

RVSS - 2013 Transit Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2013_T04_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval MNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_t04. Use the EM300 to search and survey HMAS Australia and HMAS Voyager. Scientific Objective: This work forms part of a wider study to investigate the site formation processes of deepwater shipwrecks. The debris field of the HMAS Australia wreck has never been adequately explored. This work will explore the extent of the debris field from the wreck, including the location of loose guns (rifled cannons) and funnels which were stored on deck, along with the location of the gun turrets which would have fallen out of their mounts during the sinking. These surveys will be the deepest survey of a wreck in NSW water and will provide baseline data for future potential research projects at the University of Sydney and internationally. When used in conjunction with other deepwater Australian shipwreck inspections (eg HMAS Sydney/ Kormoran and Centaur), the proposed survey will contribute further to the understanding of the site formation processes (ie how shipwreck sites form and deteriorate) and the physical decomposition processes of deep water wrecks. Scientific Objectives: The project aims to improve our understanding of the sources, sinks and background concentrations of key greenhouse gases in the Southern Hemisphere. a) Make continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone as the RV Southern Surveyor travels along the chosen transect; b) Assimilate measured data into a variety of atmospheric chemical transport, inverse and statistical models to improve our knowledge and understanding of atmospheric greenhouse gases and their sources and sinks.

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 01 (mnf:SS2013_V01_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor SS2013_V01. Submarine landslides offshore northern New South Wales and southern Queensland: their geomechanical characteristics, timing and triggers. Scientific Objectives: An extensive region of the continental slope located offshore Northern NSW and Southern Queensland between Byron Bay and the southern tip of Fraser was demonstrated to have experienced intense submarine erosion dominated by submarine landsliding in 2008 (SS 12/2008, Boyd, Keene, Gardner, Exon, Hubble et al). Major questions about the geographic extent of the area affected by these processes, the geomechanics and dynamics of sliding; the timing and frequency of sliding; and the potential trigger mechanism for slide initiation have arisen from the analysis of the material collected by the scientists who participated in the SS12/2008 voyage. These workers and their colleagues (Hubble, Airey, Clarke, Yu, Keene, Boyd et al) demonstrated that submarine landsliding on Eastern Australia’s continental margin is unexpectedly young and frequent at geological timescales. They have also developed geological and geotechnical models which attempt to explain the apparent youth and unexpected frequency of submarine landsliding in this area of the eastern Australian continental margin. This project will extend the findings of the SS 12/2008 work by collecting data that will help to validate or modify the models developed to explain the areas submarine erosion and landsliding. This will be achieved by collecting additional core and dredge samples in the original study area and by extending the coverage of detailed bathymetric to the north of the 2008 study area; and by sampling appropriate features in the area identified in the area where this new bathymetric mapping of the outer shelf and slope will be undertaken.

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 02 (mnf:SS2013_V02_VOYAGE)

This is a underway dataset with 1 minute time interval

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 03 (mnf:SS2013_V03_VOYAGE)

This is a QCed underway dataset with 1 minute time interval

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 04 (mnf:SS2013_V04_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval AMNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_v04. Observations of remarkable eastward flows and eddies in the subtropical southeast Indian Ocean. Scientific Objectives: Our work will include a suite of CTD, microstructure, surface drifter and float observations,and a mooring that will contribute to answering a first-order gap in our understanding of the large-scale currents in the subtropical southeast Indian Ocean. The presence of a near-surface, eastward flow across the South Indian Ocean is a remarkable aspect of the upper-ocean circulation because it flows against the westward direction from Ekman and Sverdrup theory for this region. The flow often appears as a set of distinct currents and jets. These currents have been detected in observations and simulated in some numerical models. However the underlying mechanisms driving the eastward surface currents and their eventual interaction with the Leeuwin Current and downwelling against the coast remains unclear. Furthermore, they appear to be linked to the Indonesian Throughflow and Southern Ocean water masses formed south of Australia. Our primary goal in this work is to make new observations of the physical and biogeochemical structure of the eastward flows in the region between existing observations and the Australian coast, where their fate is unknown. This region is filled with energetic eddies generated by the Leeuwin Current. Our observations will also provide insight into the nature of the interaction of these eddies with the circulation and productivity of the interior Indian Ocean. Dynamical understanding of the Indian Ocean circulation is central to the outstanding problem in ocean climate projections of correctly including surface processes to project the spatial patterns of heat uptake, steric sea-level rise, and storage of carbon dioxide.

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 05 (mnf:SS2013_V05_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval AMNF Southern Surveyor research voyage SS2013_v05. Scientific Objectives: The East Australian Current (EAC) is a complex and highly energetic western boundary system in the south-western Pacific off eastern Australia. It provides both the western boundary of the South Pacific gyre and the linking element between the Pacific and Indian Ocean gyres. This voyage will retrieve an array of full-depth current meter and property (CTD) moorings from the continental slope to the abyssal waters off Brisbane (26oS). At this location the EAC, north of the high eddy variability, the approaching its maximum strength and its flow is relatively uniform and coherent. The aim of this observing system is to capture the mean and time-varying flow of the EAC. This a component of IMOS, and will provide an intensive reference set of measurements of the EAC flow over sustained period for monitoring EAC transport, improved understanding of relationship of EAC and the South Pacific gyre and impact of the coastal marine ecosystem, and validation and interpretation of the current system in numerous climate and ocean models. The mooring array is located on the existing long-term XBT transects, satellite altimetry and glider tracks. The EAC deep mooring array has been complemented by a Queensland- IMOS operated inshore mooring array on the continental shelf region.

RVSS - 2013 Voyage 06 (mnf:SS2013_V06_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval Scientific Objectives: The overall scientific objective is to obtain frequent measurements of surface and deep ocean properties that control the transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the upper ocean, and then onwards to the ocean interior in the form of sinking particles. This “biological pump” drives carbon sequestration from the atmosphere, and writes the sedimentary record. The controls on its intensity are complex and involve processes that vary on daily, weekly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Obtaining observations with the necessary frequency is not possible from ships. For this reason the IMOS Southern Ocean Time Series Facility seeks to obtain this information using automated sensor measurements and sample collections. Recovery and Deployments: Recovery of: SOFS-4 mooring, Pulse-10 mooring, SAZ-15 mooring. Ancillary work includes underway and CTD sensor measurements and sample collections, and potentially zooplankton net sampling and towing of a continuous plankton recorder (CPR).

MNF ADCP Voyage Data (MNF ADCP Voyage Data)

1987 (1987)

FR 03/87 ADCP data (mnf:FR198703_ADCP)

FR 04/87 ADCP data (mnf:FR198704_ADCP)

FR 08/87 ADCP data (mnf:FR198708_ADCP)

FR 09/87 ADCP data (mnf:FR198709_ADCP)

FR 10/87 ADCP data (mnf:FR198710_ADCP)

1988 (1988)

FR 02/88 ADCP data (mnf:FR198802_ADCP)

FR 03/88 ADCP data (mnf:FR198803_ADCP)

FR 04/88 ADCP data (mnf:FR198804_ADCP)

FR 05/88 ADCP data (mnf:FR198805_ADCP)

FR 11/88 ADCP data (mnf:FR198811_ADCP)

1989 (1989)

FR 01/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198901_ADCP)

FR 02/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198902_ADCP)

FR 04/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198904_ADCP)

FR 06/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198906_ADCP)

FR 07/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198907_ADCP)

FR 08/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198908_ADCP)

FR 10/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198910_ADCP)

FR 13/89 ADCP data (mnf:FR198913_ADCP)

1990 (1990)

FR 01/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199001_ADCP)

FR 02/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199002_ADCP)

FR 03/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199003_ADCP)

FR 04/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199004_ADCP)

FR 06/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199006_ADCP)

FR 07/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199007_ADCP)

FR 08/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199008_ADCP)

FR 09/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199009_ADCP)

FR 10/90 ADCP data (mnf:FR199010_ADCP)

1991 (1991)

FR 01/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199101_ADCP)

FR 03.2/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199103-2_ADCP)

FR 03/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199103_ADCP)

FR 04/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199104_ADCP)

FR 06/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199106_ADCP)

FR 07/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199107_ADCP)

FR 09/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199109_ADCP)

FR 10/91 ADCP data (mnf:FR199110_ADCP)

1992 (1992)

FR 01/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199201_ADCP)

FR 05/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199205_ADCP)

FR 06/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199206_ADCP)

FR 07/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199207_ADCP)

FR 08/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199208_ADCP)

FR 09/92 ADCP data (mnf:FR199209_ADCP)

1993 (1993)

FR 01/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199301_ADCP)

FR 02/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199302_ADCP)

FR 06/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199306_ADCP)

FR 07/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199307_ADCP)

FR 08/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199308_ADCP)

FR 09/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199309_ADCP)

FR 10/93 ADCP data (mnf:FR199310_ADCP)

1994 (1994)

FR 02/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199402_ADCP)

FR 03/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199403_ADCP)

FR 04/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199404_ADCP)

FR 07/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199407_ADCP)

FR 08/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199408_ADCP)

FR 09/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199409_ADCP)

FR 10/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199410_ADCP)

FR 11/94 ADCP data (mnf:FR199411_ADCP)

1995 (1995)

FR 01/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199501_ADCP)

FR 02/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199502_ADCP)

FR 03/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199503_ADCP)

FR 04/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199504_ADCP)

FR 05/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199505_ADCP)

FR 06/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199506_ADCP)

FR 07/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199507_ADCP)

FR 08/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199508_ADCP)

FR 09/95 ADCP data (mnf:FR199509_ADCP)

1996 (1996)

FR 01/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199601_ADCP)

FR 02/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199602_ADCP)

FR 03/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199603_ADCP)

FR 04/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199604_ADCP)

FR 05/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199605_ADCP)

FR 06/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199606_ADCP)

FR 07/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199607_ADCP)

FR 08/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199608_ADCP)

FR 09/96 ADCP data (mnf:FR199609_ADCP)

1997 (1997)

FR 03/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199703_ADCP)

FR 04/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199704_ADCP)

FR 06/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199706_ADCP)

FR 07/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199707_ADCP)

FR 08/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199708_ADCP)

FR 10/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199710_ADCP)

FR 11/97 ADCP data (mnf:FR199711_ADCP)

1998 (1998)

FR 01/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199801_ADCP)

FR 02/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199802_ADCP)

FR 09/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199809_ADCP)

FR 10/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199810_ADCP)

FR 11/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199811_ADCP)

FR 12/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199812_ADCP)

FR 14/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199814_ADCP)

FR 15/98 ADCP data (mnf:FR199815_ADCP)

1999 (1999)

FR 01/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199901_ADCP)

FR 02/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199902_ADCP)

FR 03/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199903_ADCP)

FR 04/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199904_ADCP)

FR 05/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199905_ADCP)

FR 06/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199906_ADCP)

FR 07/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199907_ADCP)

FR 08/99 ADCP data (mnf:FR199908_ADCP)

2000 (2000)

FR 01/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200001_ADCP)

FR 02/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200002_ADCP)

FR 03/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200003_ADCP)

FR 04/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200004_ADCP)

FR 05/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200005_ADCP)

FR 06/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200006_ADCP)

FR 07/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200007_ADCP)

FR 08/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200008_ADCP)

FR 09/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200009_ADCP)

FR 10/2000 ADCP data (mnf:FR200010_ADCP)

2001 (2001)

FR 01/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200101_ADCP)

FR 02/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200102_ADCP)

FR 03/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200103_ADCP)

FR 04/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200104_ADCP)

FR 05/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200105_ADCP)

FR 06/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200106_ADCP)

FR 07/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200107_ADCP)

FR 08/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200108_ADCP)

FR 09/2001 ADCP data (mnf:FR200109_ADCP)

2002 (2002)

FR 02/2002 ADCP data (mnf:FR200202_ADCP)

FR 03/2002 ADCP data (mnf:FR200203_ADCP)

FR 04/2002 ADCP data (mnf:FR200204_ADCP)

2003 (2003)

SS 02/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200302_ADCP)

SS 03/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200303_ADCP)

SS 05/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200305_ADCP)

SS 06/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200306_ADCP)

SS 08/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200308_ADCP)

SS 09/2003 ADCP data (mnf:SS200309_ADCP)

2004 (2004)

SS 01/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200401_ADCP)

SS 02/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200402_ADCP)

SS 03/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200403_ADCP)

SS 04/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200404_ADCP)

SS 05/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200405_ADCP)

SS 06/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200406_ADCP)

SS 07/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200407_ADCP)

SS 08/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200408_ADCP)

SS 09/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200409_ADCP)

SS 10/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200410_ADCP)

SS 11/2004 ADCP data (mnf:SS200411_ADCP)

2005 (2005)

SS 01/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200501_ADCP)

SS 02/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200502_ADCP)

SS 03/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200503_ADCP)

SS 05/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200505_ADCP)

SS 06/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200506_ADCP)

SS 07/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200507_ADCP)

SS 08/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200508_ADCP)

SS 09/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200509_ADCP)

SS 10/2005 ADCP data (mnf:SS200510_ADCP)

2006 (2006)

SS 01/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200601_ADCP)

SS 02/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200602_ADCP)

SS 03/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200603_ADCP)

SS 04/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200604_ADCP)

SS 05/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200605_ADCP)

SS 06/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200606_ADCP)

SS 08/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200608_ADCP)

SS 09/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200609_ADCP)

SS 10/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200610_ADCP)

SS 11/2006 ADCP data (mnf:SS200611_ADCP)

ST 02/2006 ADCP data (mnf:ST200602_ADCP)

2007 (2007)

SS 01/2007 ADCP data (mnf:SS200701_ADCP)

SS 04/2007 ADCP data (mnf:SS200704_ADCP)

SS 07/2007 ADCP data (mnf:SS200707_ADCP)

ST 06/2007 ADCP data (mnf:ST200706_ADCP)

2008 (2008)

SS 02/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200802_ADCP)

SS 03/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200803_ADCP)

SS 04/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200804_ADCP)

SS 05/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200805_ADCP)

SS 06/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200806_ADCP)

SS 07/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200807_ADCP)

SS 09/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200809_ADCP)

SS 10/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200810_ADCP)

SS 12/2008 ADCP data (mnf:SS200812_ADCP)

ST 01/2008 ADCP data (mnf:ST200801_ADCP)

ST 02/2008 ADCP data (mnf:ST200802_ADCP)

ST 03/2008 ADCP data (mnf:ST200803_ADCP)

2009 (2009)

SS 01/2009 ADCP data (mnf:SS200901_ADCP)

SS2009_E01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2009_E01_ADCP)

SS2009_V05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2009_V05_ADCP)

SS2009_V06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2009_V06_ADCP)

ST 01/2009 ADCP data (mnf:ST200901_ADCP)

2010 (2010)

SS2010_T01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_T01_ADCP)

SS2010_T02 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_T02_ADCP)

SS2010_T03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_T03_ADCP)

SS2010_T04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_T04_ADCP)

SS2010_V01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V01_ADCP)

SS2010_V03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V03_ADCP)

SS2010_V04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V04_ADCP)

SS2010_V05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V05_ADCP)

SS2010_V06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V06_ADCP)

SS2010_V07 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V07_ADCP)

SS2010_V08 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V08_ADCP)

SS2010_V09 ADCP data (mnf:SS2010_V09_ADCP)

2011 (2011)

SS2011_C01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_C01_ADCP)

SS2011_T03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_T03_ADCP)

SS2011_T04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_T04_ADCP)

SS2011_V03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_V03_ADCP)

SS2011_V05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_V05_ADCP)

SS2011_V06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_V06_ADCP)

SS2011_V07 ADCP data (mnf:SS2011_V07_ADCP)

2012 (2012)

SS2012_T01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T01_ADCP)

SS2012_T02 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T02_ADCP)

SS2012_T03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T03_ADCP)

SS2012_T05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T05_ADCP)

SS2012_T06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T06_ADCP)

SS2012_T07 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_T07_ADCP)

SS2012_V01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V01_ADCP)

SS2012_V02 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V02_ADCP)

SS2012_V03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V03_ADCP)

SS2012_V04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V04_ADCP)

SS2012_V05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V05_ADCP)

SS2012_V06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2012_V06_ADCP)

2013 (2013)

SS2013_T01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_T01_ADCP)

SS2013_T02 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_T02_ADCP)

SS2013_T03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_T03_ADCP)

SS2013_T04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_T04_ADCP)

SS2013_V01 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V01_ADCP)

SS2013_V02 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V02_ADCP)

SS2013_V03 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V03_ADCP)

SS2013_V04 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V04_ADCP)

SS2013_V05 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V05_ADCP)

SS2013_V06 ADCP data (mnf:SS2013_V06_ADCP)

MNF Towed CTD Voyage Data (MNF Towed CTD Voyage Data)

1988 (1988)

FR 04/88 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR198804_TRAJ)

1989 (1989)

FR 13/89 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR198913_TRAJ)

1990 (1990)

FR 10/90 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199010_TRAJ)

1991 (1991)

FR 03/91 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199103_TRAJ)

FR 09/91 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199109_TRAJ)

1992 (1992)

FR 09/92 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199209_TRAJ)

1993 (1993)

FR 01/93 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199301_TRAJ)

1994 (1994)

FR 09/94 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199409_TRAJ)

1995 (1995)

FR 08/95 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199508_TRAJ)

FR 09/95 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199509_TRAJ)

1996 (1996)

FR 07/96 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199607_TRAJ)

1997 (1997)

FR 04/97 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199704_TRAJ)

FR 07/97 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199707_TRAJ)

1998 (1998)

FR 02/98 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199802_TRAJ)

FR 10/98 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199810_TRAJ)

1999 (1999)

FR 02/99 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR199902_TRAJ)

2001 (2001)

FR 02/2001 Towed CTD data (mnf:FR200102_TRAJ)

2006 (2006)

SS 05/2006 Towed CTD data (mnf:SS200605_TRAJ)

2009 (2009)

SS2009_V05 Towed CTD data (mnf:SS2009_V05_TRAJ)

SS2009_V06 Towed CTD data (mnf:SS2009_V06_TRAJ)

CMAR Underway Voyage Data (CMAR Underway Voyage Data)

2018 (2018)

RVIN - 2018 Charter 01 (cmar:IN2018_C01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2018_c01, titled “RAN Hydrographic Survey.” Voyage objectives: To facilitate safe navigation for international and coastal shipping. This survey will also improve confidence for subsurface navigation in Bass Strait. The overall focus for this survey is to conduct a modern survey in the primary shipping route through Bass Strait. The MET and OC observations and data collection have three purposes, namely: a) To collect data from which a sonar or radar range prediction can be calculated (humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed, ocean temperature and salinity profile, currents through depth, sediment type, sub-bottom classification (where possible); - Sub-bottom classification will incorporate sediment samples taken using the MNF Smith-McIntyre Grab. Samples will be kept and stored with Geoscience Australia (GA). b) To identify what observations can be conducted concurrently, and what observations have limiting factors that preclude concurrent operations/survey activity; c) To develop understanding of what types, accuracy and formats of data can be collected and how this might be of use to the scientific community and Defence. A full GSM Survey Procedure pertaining to the hydrographic surveying elements of the primary voyage are included in appendix 1 – GSM Hydrographic Survey Procedure.

RVIN - 2018 Gear Trials 01 (cmar:IN2018_E01_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2016_v02, titled “Triaxus Sea Acceptance Testing & Calibrations Voyage.” Voyage objectives were: 1. MNF SIT - Triaxus Sea Acceptance Testing as per MacArtney Sea Acceptance Test document # S1712880-SAT (see List of additional figures & documents on page 5). 2. MNF GSM - EK 60 calibration in Storm Bay. 3. MNF DAP – Acutec technicians on board for VSAT maintenance. 4. MNF Policy / Communications – Filming “Women On Board” – MNF Operations Officer Tegan Sime

RVIN - 2018 Gear Trials 02 (cmar:IN2018_E02_VOYAGE)

RV Investigator research voyage in2018_e02, titled “Marine National Facility Equipment Calibration, Sea Trials and Personnel Training." Voyage objectives: ASP • RAPP calibration of winches and software upgrades – priority task for setting up vessel for next 12 months, 50 hours needed. • 2 x 10 hour blocks for trawl winch testing • 2 x 10 hour blocks for testing CTD winches • 1 x 10 hour block for testing other winches MNF GSM • Multibeam patch tests (recalibration): One in deep water, one in shallow - a few hours required for each. • EK60/Bioacoustic recalibration at anchor in Storm Bay requiring 18 hours. Refining the calibration procedure for v01 next year. • Refining and testing underway SVP system (can be done underway in conjunction with other activities e.g. transit). MNF Field Operations • Kasten corer IN2018_V04 readiness (staff and equipment) test. Full operation (occupies space in stern deployment area) Min. 2 deployment ~4hrs. Need correct substrate for full sample procedure check. • Trace metal CTD deployment options. IN2018_V04 & IN2019_V01 readiness (staff and equipment) test. There are multiple methods to eliminating rock crush winch and utilising winches aboard. Time to test and construct SWIU based on this for the future. Min 1 deployment (not to depth)~ over the side testing of the first. 300mtrs is the most important part. ~2hrs • EZ net IN2019_V03 Replacement side bars are being upgraded and testing to ensure repetitious dropping of nets is recommended. Min 2 deployments ~5hrs. MNF DAP • Testing our new PCs (spare Triaxus, spare CTD, spare ME70, CARIS, etc) and new network infrastructure (servers, storage, backup system) • Investigating issues with the spare Triaxus data • Testing TECHSAS modifications • TSG Cal against the CTD (on deck) and also by direct sampling • Check forward transceiver room UPS load with secondary cluster • Test 4G bandwidth • Check POSMV feed into UHDAS • Normal network usage • CTD cast & Triaxus tow (done in parallel with SIT deployments) MNF SIT • Continued testing of new Triaxus • Deep towed camera (IN2018_V06) combined with Sonardyne acoustic modem testing (IN2019_V01) • Testing AHC on the CTD and Towed Body winches • Stream towed body winch wire out for re-spooling O &A • Deep towed camera (in conjunction with SIT testing) Hydrochem • Testing of new AA 100 underway nutrient analyser

RVIN - 2018 Gear Trials 03 (cmar:IN2018_E03_VOYAGE)

Test of beam trawl

2013 (2013)

RVLI - 2013 Voyage 25 (cmar:LI2013_V25_VOYAGE)

3D plume mapping was conducted over a 10day period at Chevron's Wheatstone dredging operation near Onslow Western Australia.

2014 (2014)

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 04 (cmar:LI2014_V04_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 11 (cmar:LI2014_V11_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval 3D plume mapping was conducted over a 10day period at Chevron's Wheatstone dredging operation near Onslow Western Australia - Field trip 2

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 12 (cmar:LI2014_V12_VOYAGE)

Transit to home port

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 14 (cmar:LI2014_V14_VOYAGE)

The purpose of this voyage was to service IMOS moorings due East of Two Rocks

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 15 (cmar:LI2014_V15_VOYAGE)

The purpose of this voyage was to undertake monitoring of the Rottnest Island National Reference Station and to find a location for a new IMOS mooring site.

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 16 (cmar:LI2014_V16_VOYAGE)

The purpose of this voyage was to service the 60 metre IMOS mooring site off Rottnest Island. There were a number of instrumentation issues that prevented the operation of all sensors except Sea Surface Temperature.

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 22 (cmar:LI2014_V22_VOYAGE)

LI2014_v22 was a voyage conducted onboard RV Linnaeus during November 2014 as part of the AIMS WAMSI Marine Bio-diversity project conducted in the Camden Sound region of the Kimberly. The project aims were to collect data to enable analysis of the distribution and prediction of benthic bio-diversity within the proposed marine park areas. The Geophysical Survey & Mapping team mobilised the EM2040c multibeam echosounder and system peripherals onboard RV Linnaeus. Multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data were collected at 1.5km spaced lines throughout the sampling area, generally in a north-south direction. In addition multibeam water-column data were acquired during the 1.5km towed video transects. Drop cores were successfully conducted at 59 locations around the sampling area, the locations of these cores are approximately the same as the towed video transects.

RVLI - 2014 Voyage 23 (cmar:LI2014_V23_VOYAGE)

The purpose of this voyage was to transit from Hillarys boat harbour to Fremantle.

2015 (2015)

RVLI - 2015 Voyage 10 (cmar:LI2015_V10_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval This voyage was for the purposes of deploying Acoustic Wave and Current (AWAC) instruments near Garden Island (MarLIN record number: 14487). There were no CTD deployments undertaken during the voyage.

RVLI - 2015 Voyage 11 (cmar:LI2015_V11_VOYAGE)

This is a raw underway dataset with 1 minute time interval This voyage was for the purposes of servicing the Rottnest Island National Reference Station.

LI2015_V13_VOYAGE (cmar:LI2015_V13_VOYAGE)

RVLI - 2015 Voyage 15 (cmar:LI2015_V15_VOYAGE)

This voyage was for the purposes of swath and camera tow in the Ningaloo region.

RVLI - 2015 Voyage 16 (cmar:LI2015_V16_VOYAGE)

This voyage was for the purposes of servicing the Rottnest Island National Reference Station.

1992 (1992)

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199201 (cmar:SS199201_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 01/92 was undertaken to conduct the first acoustic survey of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and deepwater oreos, smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) and black oreo (Allocyttus niger), on the major deepwater fishing ground off southern Tasmania (leg 1), and then to form the second in a series of four cruises to examine the mid-slope productivity of this area (leg 2). Target strength (TS) measurements, zooplankton, midwater and demersal sampling, pigment analysis, and measurements of primary production and hydrology were taken.

1993 (1993)

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199305 (cmar:SS199305_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 05/93 was undertaken for the Temperate and Deepwater Fisheries Resources program to conduct research in waters east of Bass Strait and around Tasmania. Cruise is divided into three parts, with a total of four legs. The first part (leg 1) carried out studies on the mid-slope ecology south of Tasmania in the vicinity of an orange roughy fishing ground south of Pedra Branca Island. The second part (legs 2 and 3) carried out demersal trawling/benthic sampling in the South East fishery north of Darcys Patch. The third part (leg 4) carried out an ichthyoplankton survey and hydrological sampling between Bermagui (NSW) and Pt Hicks (VIC). Further sampling was carried out at a series of stations along the west and southern Tasmanian coasts.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199307 (cmar:SS199307_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 07/93 was undertaken to test devices for the Bycatch Reduction in Prawn Trawls project in the area of the tiger prawn fishery west of Weipa, Gulf of Carpentaria; to conduct the commercial fish biomass survey with the Frank and Bryce net in the northern half of the GOC as in previous cruise SS 01/93 and to continue the EFN (environmentally friendly net) trials initiated on Leg 2 of cruise SS 01/93. Cruise objectives include to investigate the efficiency of the EFN in areas with bottom structure; to investigate fish habitats by characterising the benthic flora and fauna at each site; to obtain video images of the EFN, bottom structure and fish behaviour; to collect tissue samples from L. malabaricus and L. sebae for the genetics group in Hobart; to collect fish samples for the I. S. R. Munro Fish Collection in Hobart; to collect leiognathids for J. Smith and Queensland museum staff to collect sponges during the trawls.

1994 (1994)

RVSS - 1994 Voyage SS199403 (cmar:SS199403_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 03/94 was the last in a series of cruises to study the physical and biological oceanography of the waters of the southern bluefin tuna longline fishery off eastern Tasmania. Two hydrographic transects were completed off eastern Tasmania; one to the east and one along the shelf between the Hippolyte Rocks and Maria Island. Midwater trawls, zooplankton and surface plankton sampling were carried out and acoustic data were collected continuosly.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199404 (cmar:SS199404_VOYAGE)

(Above dates from 1994-95 cruise schedule)

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199405 (cmar:SS199405_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 05/94 was undertaken to conduct an acoustic survey of blue grenadier in waters off the west coast of Tasmania; examine the South east fishery ecosystem structure/seafloor habitat off south-eastern Victoria and southern New South Wales, and to continue the Maria Island fishery survey off the east coast of Tasmania. Cruise aims included to assess temperature and salinity structure at blue grenadier spawning sites; trawl sampling of blue grenadier; plankton net sampling for grenadier eggs; obtain acoustic measurements of grenadier aggregations; broad scale survey of demersal fishes and benthic invertebrates; collect samples for stable isotope, dietary, and pigment analysis; survey two offshore (mid-shelf) reef areas; collect samples of fish and invertebrates and photograph for "Handbook of Australian seafood" and to collect biological material for collaborative studies with other research institutions and stock assessment.

1995 (1995)

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199501 (cmar:SS199501_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 01/95 was the second cruise of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). Cruise was carried out in the Southern Ocean south and west of Tasmania, between 40 degrees S to 54 degrees S, and 140 degrees E to 147 degrees E. The aims of the cruise were to identify and understand the interactions of the physical, chemical and biological processes controlling the pools and fluxes of carbon within and between the atmosphere and the ocean in the Southern Ocean in the Australian region. Measurements undertaken include in-situ optical data, primary production, microzooplankton grazing, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and isotopic composition, acoustic backscatter recordings and CTD sections. Pigment, zooplankton and trace metal sampling.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199502 (cmar:SS199502_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 02/95 was undertaken to test devices for the Bycatch Reduction in Prawn Trawls project in the area of the tiger prawn fishery west of Weipa, Gulf of Carpentaria. Aims of the cruise were to conduct prawn and fish bycatch reduction/video comparison trawls; EFN (environmentally friendly net) trawls, multi-level beam trawls, and to collect samples for other research groups. The night time prawn trawling was carried out 5 nm west of Duyfken Point and day time trawling in waters further west. Eight bycatch reduction devices and a control or standard prawn net codend were tested and the five most successful BRDs were compared intensively. Daytime fish trawling with the EFN were carried out in waters 25 nm west of Duyfken Point. Video recordings were also obtained to observe fish behaviour in the nets during trawling. Samples collected included 130 fish specimens for the Hobart Fish Taxonomy Group's Handbook of Commercial Fishes, scombrids and cephalopds collected for QDPI Fisheries, tissue samples from L. malabaricus, L. sebae and other species were obtained for population genetic studies for the Hobart genetics group, sponges and invertebrates were collected for Queensland Museum and AIMS, and 3 species of Thenus were collected for University of Queensland. Successful deployment and retrieval of the AIMS acoustic recorder was also conducted in the area and 11 turtles were tagged during prawn trawling.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199508 (cmar:SS199508_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 08/95 was undertaken to continue the experimental management program (1986-91) in the North West Shelf, encompassing three experimental management zones Barrow Island, Legendre and Port Hedland. Aims of the cruise were to determine the composition of the demersal fish community and the distribution and abundance of habitats (based on epibenthic fauna); to conduct hydrological transects; obtain taxonomic specimens and photos of NW shelf fish and invertebrate species; carry out 'fish down' trawls and to conduct trawls in water (~ 300 m) to collect specimens of Mustelus species for a genetic study, and other species of importance to the Fish Taxonomy group. Data and samples collected included length frequency for 14 species of fish, specimens for the Handbook of Australian Seafood, specimens and muscle samples for the fillet analysis study, video and camera photography of the trawls, over 195 species of sponges for taxonomic studies by the Queensland Museum. Whale observations were also conducted.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199510 (cmar:SS199510_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 10/95 was undertaken to test devices for the Bycatch Reduction in Prawn Trawls project in the area of the tiger prawn fishery west of Weipa, Gulf of Carpentaria. Aims of the cruise were to conduct prawn and fish bycatch reduction/video comparison trawls; EFN (environmentally friendly net) trawls, shark longlining, and to collect samples for the Hobart genetics group. The night time prawn trawling was carried out 5 nm west of Duyfken Point and day time trawling in waters further west. Five bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) and a control or standard prawn net codend were tested and four of these BRDs were compared intensively. Daytime fish trawling with the EFN were carried out in waters 25 nm west of Duyfken Point. Video images were obtained of fish behaviour in the BRD codends of the prawn net and the EFN, and of the performance of the EFN over benthic structure. Samples collected included bycatch species for reference specimens and saurids for the Hobart genetics group. Longlining was successfully used to demonstrate its effectiveness at obtaining large numbers of sharks over short time intervals including dyed bait experiments.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199511 (cmar:SS199511_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 11/95 was the third cruise of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and also the ACE-1 International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project. The cruise track was in the Southern Ocean west and south of Tasmania, extending as far 53 degrees south, and including the WOCE section SR3 line. Cruise objectives include studying the physical, chemical and biological environment and carbon fluxes during the spring bloom period (JGOFS), and atmospheric chemistry and cloud dynamics over the Southern Ocean (ACE-1). Measurements undertaken include in-situ optical data, primary production, particulate carbon concentrations, isotopic C and N, acoustic backscatter, MIDOC trawls, CO2 concentrations, DMSP/DMS production, fluorescence studies of phytoplankton populations, pigment sampling, radon measurements, and larval fish studies.

1996 (1996)

SS 02/96 (cmar:SS199602_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 02/96 was the third in a series of four cruises to examine the ecosystem structure and seafloor habitats in the area of the South East Fishery (SEF) off the east coast of Tasmania, south eastern Victoria and southern NSW. Research objectives included a broad-scale survey of fish and invertebrates, seafloor habitats and their associated faunas, hydrology and zooplankton; sample collection for stable isotope analysis; sampling for phytoplankton pigment studies from the water column and sediments; photographic survey of the seafloor off Maria Island to study brittle stars; collection and photography of fish and invertebrates for handbook; collect biological material for collaborative studies with other Australian research instituions and stock assessment, and to collect fish samples for ecomorphological analysis.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199604 (cmar:SS199604_VOYAGE)

(information from cruise plan): Southern Surveyor cruise SS 06/96 was the fourth acoustic survey of orange roughy on the St. Helens spawning ground north-east of Tasmania, and also carried out a survey in the southern orange roughy zone south of Tasmania. Acoustic targets were also investigated using demersal and mid-water trawling to assess the fish species composition. Additional objectives included calibration of the acoustic systems, collection of acoustic data for bottom typing, and description of the community composition from the surface to 1000 m using multi-frequency acoustics and depth stratified opening/closing midwater trawls.

SS 06/96 (cmar:SS199606_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 06/96 was the fourth in a series of four cruises studying ecosystem structure and seafloor habitats in the area of the South East Fishery (SEF) off eastern Bass Strait and southern New South Wales. Research objectives included a broad-scale survey of fish, invertebrates, seafloor habitats and their associated faunas, hydrology and zooplankton; sample collection for stable isotope analysis; sampling for phytoplankton pigment studies from the water column and sediments; collect and photograph fish specimens for various guides and handbooks; collect tissue samples from fish and invertebrates for a bioprospecting (AIMS) project; fish samples for ecomorphological analysis (CSIRO) and a photographic survey of the seafloor off Maria Island to study brittle stars. Two current meter moorings were also deployed and retrieved during this cruise.

1997 (1997)

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199701 (cmar:SS199701_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 01/97 was a biological survey of 14 seamounts south of Tasmania. Photographic surveys of four seamounts were completed using a deepwater camera system. Dropline fishing was carried out on four seamounts at depths of 725-1510 m. Faunal samples (including corals and many other benthic invertebrates) were obtained from top, slope, and base of most of the seamounts, as well as some fish. Samples of corals were also taken for genetic analysis, and rock samples taken for age determination of the seamounts by scientists from the University of Tasmania and AGSO.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199702 (cmar:SS199702_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 02/97 was the first in a series of three cruises for the Bycatch Sustainability project in the areas of the northern prawn fishery of the Torres Strait and the Gulf of Carpentaria. The aims of the cruise were to identify all vertebrate and invertebrate bycatch species in prawn trawls in the northern prawn fishery and the Torres Strait; to sort one total catch from each of nine areas; to complete subsampling prawn trawl experiments; to collect RoxAnn and EK500 acoustic data to help discriminate bottom environments, accompanied by dredge tows and abiotic samples; to collect saurid specimens for phylogenetic analyses; and to collect and photograph specimens of commercial fishes. Sea snakes were also tested for post-trawl survival, and leiognathids (ponyfish) chemically treated for otolith marking.

RV Southern Surveyor Voyage SS199706 (cmar:SS199706_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 06/97 was undertaken to study the distribution and abundance of puerulus larvae of the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus in the north-western Coral Sea with respect to oceanographic features, diurnal cycles and lunar phase, by scientists from CSIRO Marine Research and Papua New Guinea Fisheries Department. Lobster larvae and other zooplankton were sampled by plankton trawls and vertical-haul plankton nets, oceanographic features were studied with CTD sampling, and the biology of puerulus larvae was investigated by studying the behaviour of captured specimens. Preserved samples were also taken for study of gut contents and genetic analyses. Experiments by DSTO staff, previously scheduled as cruise SS 05/97, also took place as part of this cruise.

1998 (1998)

SS 01/98 (cmar:SS199801_VOYAGE)

Pre-cruise objectives: Southern Surveyor cruise SS 01/98 has the primary objective of studying southern bluefin tuna (SBT) in the Great Australian Bight using acoustic methods, which will be compared with results using aerial surveys, plus carrying out hydrographic transects and sampling of possible SBT prey species (other fish and crustacean species) by net sampling. As secondary objectives, data will be collected for calibration of infra-red thermometers on aerial survey planes, plankton and midwater tows will be undertaken for phyllosoma-stage rock lobster larvae, SBT stomachs from wild-caught SBT will be collected from commercial fishers, and 35mm bottom photography will be carried out for possible correlation with the distribution of SBT. Gear trials with the newly installed ADCP will also be carried out.

SS 02/98 (cmar:SS199802_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 02/98 had the objective of mapping the distribution of temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and velocity in the vicinity of the Subantarctic Front, in the Southern Ocean south of Tasmania (approx. latitude 48 degrees-52 degrees S, 138 degrees-145 degrees E). Upper ocean currents are to be studied with ADCP and continuous measurements of sea surface salinity and temperature will be obtained from the salinograph for the whole voyage. Two magnetometer moorings were also to be recovered.

1999 (1999)

SS 02/99 (cmar:SS199902_VOYAGE)

Southern Surveyor cruise SS 02/99 will be carried out in waters off Cape Grim and in the Southern Ocean. The cruise is designed to improve understanding of the timing and factors regulating the oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide in the sub-Antartic Zone. The cruise will focus on improving understanding of the regional variability in upper ocean biogeochemical properties (CO2, pigments, O2, and nutrients) and linking surface ocean flux estimates to atmospheric measurements of CO2 in the boundary layer near Cape Grim. Cruise objectives include to contribute to a better understanding of the carbon source/sink distributions in the region and the physical and biological controls on carbon uptake in the sub-Antartic zone. Southern Surveyor will coordinate work off Cape Grim with aircraft sampling to better understand the link between air-sea exchange and the drawdown in C02 in the atmospheric boundary layer at Cape Grim. To sample biogeochemical properties for summer conditions over a sediment trap mooring located at 46 degrees 45.52' S 142 degrees 05.38'E. CTD casts and aquashuttle tows will be carried out. This cruise will complement work done in the same region on Southern Surveyor in spring 1995 (SS 11/95), and on Aurora Australis in late summer, 1998

2000 (2000)

SS - 01/2000 (cmar:SS200001_VOYAGE)

The overall research goals for the voyage are to: a) test and refine techniques for mapping and classifying marine benthic habitats and their biological communities using surrogate variables, and develop protocols for ground-truthing such assessments b) map habitat and community substructure in key areas c) sample previously unsurveyed marine habitats and communities to enable extension of the existing regionalisations in this region (principally on the lower continental slope, 1500 - 2000 m)

CMAR ADCP Voyage Data (CMAR ADCP Voyage Data)

1998 (1998)

SS 01/98 ADCP data (cmar:SS199801_ADCP)

SS 02/98 ADCP data (cmar:SS199802_ADCP)

2000 (2000)

SS 01/2000 ADCP data (cmar:SS200001_ADCP)

There are currently no notifications for the service, click the feed icon to subscribe.